A

AMS
Abbreviation for Aerospace Material Specification.

ANSI
Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute.

ASME
Abbreviation for American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

ASTM
Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials.

AWS
Abbreviation for American Welding Society.

Abrasion
See "Mark, Traffic."

Age Hardening
An aging process which results in increased strength and hardness.

Age Softening
Spontaneous decrease of strength and hardness that takes place at room temperature in certain strain hardened alloys containing magnesium.

Aging
Precipitation from solid solution resulting in a change in properties of an alloy, usually occurring slowly at room temperature (natural aging) and more rapidly at elevated temperatures (artificial aging).

Alclad
An aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating that is metallurgically bonded to either one or both surfaces of an aluminum alloy product, and that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corrosion. For

Alligatoring
See "Lamination."

Alloy
A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more elements of which at least one is an elemental metal.

Angularity
conformity to, or deviation from, specified angular dimensions in the cross section of a shape or bar.

Angulation
The deliberate departure from a horizontal passline on the entry side of a rolling mill used for one-side bright rolling.

Annealing
A thermal treatment to soften metal by removal of stress resulting from cold working or by coalescing precipitates from solid solution.

Annealing, Partial
Thermal treatment (H2X temper nomenclature) given cold worked metal to reduce strength and increase ductility to controlled levels other than annealed temper.

Anodizing
Forming a coating on a metal surface produced by electrochemical treatment through anodic oxidation.

Anodizing Sheet
See "Sheet, Anodizing."

Arbor Break
See "Buckle, Arbor."

Arbor Mark
See "Mark, Arbor."

Artificial Aging
see "Aging."

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B

Back End Condition
A condition occurring in the last metal to be extruded. It is a result of the oxidized surface of the billet feeding into the extrusion.

Backup Rolls
Nongrooved rolls which stiffen or strengthen work rolls.

Bar
A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section which is square or rectangular (excluding plate and flattened wire) with sharp or rounded corners or edges, or is a regular hexagon or octagon, and in which at least one perpendicular d

Bar, Cold-Finished
Bar brought to final dimensions by cold work to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.

Bar, Cold-Finished Extruded
cold-finished bar produced from extruded bar.

Bar, Cold-Finished Rolled
cold-finished bar produced from rolled bar.

Bar, Extruded
Bar brought to final dimensions by hot extruding.

Bar, Rolled
Bar brought to final dimensions by hot rolling.

Bar, Saw-Plate
Bar brought to final thickness by hot or cold rolling and to final width by sawing.

Base Box-General
An agreed-upon unit of area used primarily in packaging applications. One common base box for aluminum is 31,360 square inches, originally composed of 112 rectangular sheets each 14 by 20 inches.

Belled Edge
See "Edge, Belled."

Belly
A loose center buckle extending to near the edges of a sheet.

Billet
A hot worked semifinished product suitable for subsequent working by such methods as rolling, forging, extruding, etc.

Blank
A piece of metal cut or formed to regular or irregular shape for subsequent processing such as by forming, bending or drawing. The piece of sheet stock cut out by blanking die. It will subsequently be drawn into a cup or end shell.

Bleed Out
See "Two-Tone."

Blister
A raised area on the surface of a extruded product due to subsurface gas expansion. This can occur during extrusion or thermal treatment.

Blister, Bond
A raised spot on only one surface of the metal whose origin is between the cladding and core in clad products.

Blister, Coating
A blister in the coating of an alclad or a clad product.

Blister, Core
A raised spot (one or both sides) on rolled metal.

Block Mark
See "Scratch, Tension."

Bloom
A semifinished hot rolled product, rectangular or square in cross section, produced on a blooming mill.

Blow Hole
A blister that has ruptured and may produce a void. See also "Blister."

Boss
A knoblike projection on the main body of a forging or casting.

Bottom Dratt
Taper or slope in the bottom of a forged depression to assist the flow of metal toward the sides of the depressed area.

Bow
Longitudinal curvature of rod, bar, profiles (shapes), and tube. Bow is measured after allowing the weight of the extrusion to minimie the deviation. Bow can be caused by a non-uniform extrusion rate across the cross section resulting in one portion of the extrusion being longer than the other or non-uniform contraction during quenching.

Bow, Lateral
Deviation from straight of a longitudinal edge.

Bow, Longitudinal
Curvature in the plane of sheet or plate in the rolling direction.

Bow, Transverse
Curvature across the rolling direction of sheet or plate.

Brazing
Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 425C (800F) but lower than those of the metals being joined. This may be accomplished by means of a torch (torch brazing), in a furnace (furnace brazing), or by dipping in a molten flux bath (dip or flux brazing).

Brazing Rod
A rolled, extruded, or casr round filler metal for use in joining by brazing.

Brazing Sheet
Sheet of a brazing alloy, or sheet clad with a brazing alloy on one or both sides.

Brazing Wire
Wire for use as a filler metal in joining by brazing.

Bright Sheet
See "Sheet, (1SBMF), (S2SBF)."

Bristle Mark
See "Mark, Bristle."

Broken Die
A deviation from the desired cross section due to the absence of a certain portion of the die used to extrude the profile (shape).

Broken Edge
See "Edge, Broken."

Broken Matte Finish
Nonuniform surface on the inside of packed rolled foil (Bright Spots).

Broken Surface
see "Crazing."

Bruise
see "Mark, Roll Bruise."

Buckle
A distortion of the surface of the metal.

Buckle, Arbor
Bend, crease, wrinkle, or departure from flat, occurring perpendicular to the slit edge of a coil and which are repetitive in nature, with severity decreasing as the distance increases in the coil from the original source. Normally, it is found on the ID of a coil but can appear on the coil OD as a result of a prior winding operation.

Buckle, Center
Undulation (wavy region) in the center of the metal.

Buckle, Edge
Undulation (wavy region) along the edge(s) of the metal.

Buckle, Oil Can
See "Buckle, Trapped."

Buckle, Trapped
Undulation (wavy region) which is smaller sized and often circular in shape.

Buckle, Quarter
Undulation (wavy region) which occur approximately at both quarter points across the width.

Buff Streak
see"Streak."

Buffing
A mechanical finishing operation in which fine abrasives are applied to a metal surface by rotating fabric wheels for the purpose of developing a lustrous finish.

Burnish Streak
see "Streak, Bumish."

Burnishing
See "Two-Tone."

Burr
A thin ridge ofroughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting, trimming, shearing, blanking or sawing.

Bursting Strength
The pressure required to rupture a foil specimen when it is tested in a Mullen instrument under specified conditions. See also "Mullen Test."

Bus Bar
A rigid electric conductor in the form of a bar.

Butt-Seam Tube
See "Tube, Open-Seam."

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C

Camber
See "Bow, Lateral."

Carbon Mark
See "Mark, Carbon."

Center
The difference in thickness between the middle and edges (average) of a sheet.

Center Buckle
See"Buckle."

Chafing
See "Mark, Traffic."

Chatter Mark
see "Mark, Chatter."

Chip Mark
See "Dent, Repeating."

Chop
Metal sheared from a vertical surface of a die forging, which is spread by the die over an adjoining horizontal surface.

Chucking Lug
A lug or boss added to a forging so that "on center" machining and forming may be performed with one setup or checking. This lug is finally machined or cut away.

Cinching
see "Scratch, Tension."

Circle
A circular blank fabricated from plate, sheet or foil.

Clad Sheet
See "Sheet, Clad."

Coating
Continuous film on the surface of a product.

Coating Blister
see "Blister, Coating."

Coating Build-Up
A coating thickness greater than nominal in localized area of sheet, usually along edges, due to uneven application techniques.

Coating Drip
A non-uniform extraneous deposit of coating on the coated sheet.

Coating Oven Trash
See "Dirt."

Coating Streak
See "Streak, Coating."

Coating, High or Low
Failure of the coating to meet the agreed upon thickness limits measured in weight per unit area.

Cobble
(l) A jamming of the mill by aluminum product while being rolled. (2) A piece of aluminum which for any reason has become so bent or twisted that it must be withdrawn from the rolling operation and scrapped.

Coil Curvature
See "Coil Set."

Coil Orientation
Clockwise Coil: With the coil core vertical ("eye to the sky") and viewed from above, a trace of the metal edge from the ID to the OD involves clock-wise movement. Counter-Clockwise (Anti-Clockwise) Coil: With the coil core vertical ("eye to the sky") and viewed from above, a trace of the metal edge from the ID to the OD involves counter-clockwise (anti-clockwise) movement.

Coil Set
Longitudinal bow in an unwound coil in the same direction as curvature of the wound coil.

Coil Set Differential
The difference in coil set from edge to edge of a coiled sheet sample. It is measured with the sample on a flat table, concave side up, and is the difference in elevation of the corners on one end.

Coil Set, Reversed
Longitudinal bow in an unwound coil in the direction opposite to the curvature of the wound coil.

Coiled Sheet
see "Sheet, Coiled."

Cold Shut
(l) A linear discontinuity in a cast surface caused when meeting streams of metal fail to merge prior to solidification. (2) A forging defect developed by metal flowing into a section from two directions, resulting in a discontinuity at the junction.

Cold Working
plastic (i.e., permanent) deformation of metal at such temperature and rate that strain-hardening occurs.

Collapse
out-of-round condition of coil often due to inappropriate tension during rewinding operations.

Coloring
A finishing process, or combination of processes, which alters the appearance of an aluminum surface via coating, chemical and/or mechanical operations.

Concavity
Curved like the inner surface of a sphere. See also "Convexity."

Concentricity
Conformance to a common center as, for example, the inner and outer walls of round tube.

Condensation Stain
See "Corrosion, Water Stain."

Condenser Tube
The term "Heat-Exchanger Tube" is preferred, unless specific reference to a condenser application is intended.

Conduit
A tube used to protect electric Wiring. See also "Tubing, Electrical Metallic."

Conduit, Rigid
Conduit having dimensions of ANSI Schedule 40 pipe in standardized length with threaded ends.

Coned-out Coil
see "Telescoping."

Contour
That portion of the outline of a transverse cross section of an extruded shape that is represented by a curved line or curved lines.

Conversion Coating-Can Ends
see "Coating, Conversion."

Convexity
curved like the outer surface of a sphere. See also "Concavity"

Core
A hollow cylinder on which a coiled product may be wound that forms the inside diameter of a coil.

Core Blister
see "Blister, Core."

Coring
see "Back End Condition."

Corner Turn-up
A distortion, buckle or twist condition that causes the corner( s ) of the sheet to deviate from a perfectly flat plane on which it rests.

Corrosion
The deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment.

Corrosion, Exfoliation
Corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the metal surface, causing layers of the met(i} to be elevated by the formation of corrosion product.

Corrosion, Galvanic
corrosion associated with the current of galvanic cell consisting of two dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte or two similar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes. Aluminum will corrode if it is anodic to the dissimilar metal.

Corrosion, Intergranular
Corrosion occurring preferentially at grain boundaries (also termed intercrystalline corrosion).

Corrosion, Pitting
Localized corrosion resulting in small pits or craters in a metal surface.

Corrosion, Stress Cracking
Failure by cracking resulting from selective directional attack caused by the simultaneous interaction of sustained tensile stress at an exposed surface with the chemical or electro-chemical effects of the surface environment. The term is often abbreviated SCC which correctly stands for stress corrosion surfaces.

Corrosion, Water Stain
Superficial oxidation of the surface with a water film, in the absence of circulating air, held between closely adjacent metal surfaces.

Corrugating
Forming rolled metal into a series of straight parallel regular alternate grooves and ridges.

Costing, Conversion
An inorganic pretreatment sometimes applied to metal surface to enhance coating adhesion and to retard corrosion.

Coupon
A piece of metal from which a test specimen may be prepared.

Covering Area
Yield expressed in terms of a given number of square inches in a pound. For metric units, use square metres per kilogram.

Crazing
A macroscopic effect of numerous surface tears, transverse to the rolling direction, which can occur when the entry angle into the cold mill work rolls is large.

Crease
A sharp deviation from flat in the sheet which is transferred from processing equipment subsequent to the roll bite.

Cross Hatching
See "Crazing."

Crown
See "Convexity."

Curl
An undesirable condition caused by uneven rates of absorption or evaporation of moisture, uneven rates of contraction or expansion, or internal stresses in the material. Curl is most prevalent in laminated structures where the components have differing physical properties.

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D

Deep Drawing
Forming a deeply recessed part by forcing sheet metal to undergo plastic flow between dies, usually without substantial thinning of the sheet.

Defect
A defect is anything that renders tfle aluminum unfit for the specific use for which it was ordered.

Dent
(l) For rolled products, a sharply defined surface impression on the metal which may be caused by a blow from another object. (2) For extrusions, a synonym for handling mark. See "Mark, Handling."

Dent, Expansion
Localized surface deviation from flat generated by expansion of vapor during thermal treatment of cold rolled coiled sheet.

Dent, Repeating
Repeating depression caused by a particle adhering to a rotating roll over which the metal has passed.

Die Line
A longitudinal depression or protrusion formed on the surface of drawn or extruded material. Die lines are present to some degree in all extrusions and are caused by a roughening of the die bearing.

Die Number
The number assigned to a die for identification and cataloging purposes, and which usually is assigned for the same purpose to the product produced from that die.

Diffusion Streak
See "Streak, Diffusion."

Dirt
Foreign debris from rolling or post-rolling operations imbedded in or under the coating.

Disc
A circular blank fabricated from plate, sheet or foil, from which a central concentric area has been removed.

Double Shear Notch
See "Notch, Double Shear."

Draft
Taper on the sides of a die or mold impression to facilitate removal of forgings, castings or patterns from dies or molds.

Drag Mark
See "Rub, Tool."

'Draw and Iron'-Can Bodies
Term which refers to a method of fabricating a can body in which a cup is drawn from flat sheet, redrawn to the final diameter and then wall ironed to reduce the wall thickness and to achieve the required height.

Drawing
(l) In forging, an operation of working metal between flat dies to reduce the cross section and increase length. (2) The process of pulling material through a die to reduce the size, change the cross section or shape, or harden the material.

Drawing Stock
A hot worked intermediate solid product of uniform cross section along its whole length, supplied in coils and of a quality suitable for drawing into wire.

Drawn Product
A product formed by pulling material through a die.

Drawn-ln Scratch
See "Scratch, Drawn-In."

Dropped Edge
See "Edge, Dropped."

Dry Sheet
see "Lube, Low."

Dry Surface
A foil surface substantially free from oily film, and suitable for lacquering, printing, or coating with water-dispersed adhesives.

Duct Sheet
Coiled or flat sheet in specific tempers, widths and thicknesses, suitable for duct applications.

Ductility
The property that permits permanent deformation before fracture by stress in tension.

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E

Earing
wavy symmetrical projections formed during cupping, deep drawing or spinning. Earing is caused by nonuniform directional properties in the aluminum and/or by improperly adjusted tooling.

Ears
Wavy symmetrical projections formed in the course of deep drawing or spinning as a result of directional properties or anisotropy in sheet. Ears occur in groups of 4 or 8 with the peaks of the projections located at 45 degrees and/or at 0 and 90 degrees to the rolling direction. Degree of earing is the difference between average height at the peaks and average height at the valleys, divided by average height at the valleys, multiplied by 100 and expressed in percent.

Eccentricity
Deviation from a common center, as, for example, the inner and outer walls of a round tube. The difference between the mean wall thickness and minimum or maximum wall thickness at any one cross section. The permissible degree of eccentricity can be expressed by a plus and minus wall-thickness tolerance.

Edge, Band
See "Two-Tone."

Edge, Belled
Excessive buildup of material on edge(s) during a rewinding operation. Typical causes include excessive edge burr, turned edge, and "dog bone" shaped cross sectional profiles.

Edge, Broken {Cracked)
Edge(s) containing crack, split, and/or tear which is caused by inability to deform without fracturing.

Edge, Buildup
See "Edge, Belled."

Edge, Damaged
Edge of a coil that has been bent, torn or scraped by an object.

Edge, Dropped
A continuous, downward edge deflection.

Edge, Liquated
Surface condition remaining after portions of a side of an as-cast rolling ingot deforms enough during hot rolling to become top and/or bottom surface(s) of the rolled product at an edge.

Edge, Rippled
See "Buckle, Edge."

Edge, Wavy
See "Buckle, Edge."

Electrical Conductivity
The capacity of a material to conduct electric current. For aluminum, this capacity is expressed as a percentage of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS), which has a resistivity of 1/58 ohm-mm2/meter at 68 degrees F and an arbitrarily designated conductivity of unity.

Electrical Resistivity
The electrical resistance of a body of unit length and unit cross-sectional area or unit weight. The value of 1/58 ohm-mm2/meter at 68 degrees F is the resistivity equivalent to the International Annealed Copper Standard for 100 percent conductivity. This means that a wire o 100 percent conductivity, 1 meter in length and 1 square millimeter in cross-sectional area would have a resistance of 0.017241 ohms at 68 degress F.

Elongation
The percentage increase in distance between two gauge marks that results from stressing the specimen in tension to fracture. The original gauge length is usually 2 inches for flat specimens and round specimens whose diameter is 1/2 inch, or four times the diameter for specimens where that dimension is under 1/2 inch. Elogation values depend to some extent upon size and form of the test specimen. For example, th3 vvalue obtained from sheet specimens will be lower for thin sheet than for thicker sheet.

Embossing
Raising a design in relief against a surface.

Endurance Limit
The limiting stress below which a material will withstand a specified large number of cycles of stress.

Equivalent Round
The diameter of a circle having a circumference equal to the outside perimeter of other than round tube.

Extrusion
A product formed by pushing material through a die.

Extrusion Billet
The starting stock for the extrusion operation. Extrusion billet is a solid or hollow form, commonly cylindrical and is the length charged into the extrusion press cylinder. It is usually a cast product but may be a wrought product or powder compact.

Extrusion Butt End Defect
A longitudinal discontinuity in the extreme rear portion of an extruded product, which is normally discarded.

Extrusion Ingot
A cast form that is solid or hollow, usually cylindrical, suitable for extruding. See also "Fabricating Ingot."

Extrusion Log
The starting stock for extrusion billet. Extrusion log is usually produced in lengths from which shorter extrusion billets are cut.

Extrusion Seam
A region in extruded hollow profiles observed after creating two streams of metal and rejoining them around the mandrel of a porthole or bridge die.

Eyehole
see "Holiday."

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F

Fabricating Ingot
A cast form suitable for subsequent working by such methods as rolling, forging, extruding, etc. ("Rolling Ingot." "Forging Ingot " "Extrusion Ingot")

Fatigue
The tendency for a metal to break under conditions of repeated cyclic stressing considerably below the ultimate tensile strength.

Feed In
See "Back End Condition."

Feed Line
See "Streak, Grinding."

Fillet
A concave junction between two surfaces.

Fin
A thin projection on a forging resulting from trimming or from the metal under pressure being forced into hairline cracks in the die or around die inserts.

Fin Stock
coiled sheet or foil in specific alloys, tempers, and thickness ranges suitable for manufacture of fins for heat-exchanger applications.

Finish
The characteristics of the surface of a product.

Fish Mouthing
See "Lamination."

Flag
A marker inserted adjacent to the edge at a splice or lap in a roll or foil.

Flaking
A condition in coated sheet where portions of the coating become loosened due to inadequate adhesion.

Flange
See "Rib."

Flash
A thin protrusion at the parting line of a forging which forms when metal, in excess of that required to fill the impressions, is forced between the die interfaces.

Flash Line
A line left on a forging where flash has been removed.

Flatness
(1) For rolled products, a distortion of the surface of sheet such as a bulge or a wave, usually transverse to the direction of rolling. Often described by location across width, i.e., edge buckle, quarter buckle, center buckle, etc. (2) For extrusions, f

Flow Lines
(l) Lines on the surface of painted sheet, brought about by incomplete leveling of the paint. (2) The line pattern revealed by etching, which shows the direction of plastic flow on the surface or within a wrought structure.

Flow Through
A forging defect caused when metal flows past the base of a rib resulting in rupture of the grain structure.

FOB
Free on Board.

Foil
A rolled product rectangular in cross section of thickness less than 0.006 inch. In Europe, foil is equal to and less than 0.20 mm.

Foil Stock
See "Reroll Stock."

Foil, Annealed
Foil completely softened by thermal treatment.

Foil, Bright Two Sides
Foil having a uniform bright specular finish on both sides.

Foil, Chemically Cleaned
Foil chemically washed to remove lubricant and foreign material.

Foil, Embossed
Foil on which a pattern has been impressed by means of an engraved roll or plate.

Foil, Etched
Foil roughened chemically or electrochemically to provide an increased surface area.

Foil, Hard
Foil fully work-hardened by rolling.

Foil, Intermediate Temper
Foil intermediate in temper between Annealed Foil and Hard Foil.

Foil, Matte One Side (MIS)
Foil with a diffuse reflecting finish on one side and a bright specular finish on the other.

Foil, Mechanically Grained
Foil mechanically roughened for such applications as lithography

Foil, Mill Finish (MF}
Foil having a non-uniform finish which may vary from coil to coil and within a coil.

Foil, Scratch Brushed
Foil abraded, usually with wire brushes, to produce a roughened surface.

Fold
A forging discontinuity caused by metal folding back on its own surface during flow in the die cavity

Forgeability
The term used to describe the relative workability of forging material.

Forging
A metal part worked to a predetermined shape by one or more processes such as hammering, upsetting, pressing, rolling, etc.

Forging Billet
The term "Forging Stock" is preferred.

Forging Ingot
A cast form intended and suitable for subsequent working by the forging process.

Forging Plane
A reference plane or planes normal to the direction of applied force from which all draft angles are measured.

Forging Stock
A wrought or cast rod, bar or other section suitable for forging.

Forging, Blocker-Type
A forging made in a single set of impressions to the general contour of a finished part.

Forging, Cold-Coined
A forging that has been restruck cold in order to obtain closer dimensions, to sharpen corners or outlines and in non-heat-treatable alloys, to increase hardness.

Forging, Die
A forging formed to the required shape and size by working in impression dies.

Forging, Draftless
A forging with zero draft on vertical walls.

Forging, Flashless
A closed die forging made in dies constructed and operated to eliminate, in predetermined areas, the formation of flash.

Forging, Hammer
A forging produced by repeated blows in a forging hammer.

Forging, Hand
A forging worked between flat or simply shaped dies by repeated strokes or blows and manipulation of the piece.

Forging, No-Draft
see "Forging, Draftless."

Forging, Precision
A forging produced to tolerances closer than standard.

Forging, Press
A die forging produced by pressure applied in a forging press.

Forging, Rolled Ring
A cylindricalproduct of relatively short height, circumferentially rolled from a hollow section.

Forging, Upset
A forging having part or all of its cross section greater than that of the stock.

Formability
The relative ease with which a metal can be shaped through plastic deformation.

Fracture Toughness
A generic term for measure of resistance to extension of a crack. The term is sometimes restricted to results of a fracture mechanics test, which is directly applicable in fracture control.

Fretting
see "Mark, Traffic."

Friction scratch
See "Scratch, Friction."

Full Center
see "Buckle, Center."

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G

Gauge
A term previously used in referring to the thickness of a wrought product. Thickness is preferred in dimension description.

Gauge, Rolled In
A more localized gross rolled-in scratch. See also "Scratch, Rolled-in."

Glaze
See "Pickup, Roll."

Gouge
A gross scratch. See "Scratch."

Grain Flow
The directional characteristics of the metal structure after working, revealed by etching a polished section.

Grain Size
A measure of crystal size usually reported in terms of average diameter in millimeters, grains per square millimeter, or grains per cubic millimeter.

Grease Streak
see "Streak, Grease."

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H

Hair, Slitter
Minute hair-like sliver along edge(s) due to shearing or slitting operation.

Handling Mark
See "Mark, Handling."

Hardener
An alloy containing at least some aluminum and one or more added elements for use in making alloying additions to molten aluminum. Also referred to as "Master Alloy."

Hardness
Resistance to plastic deformation, usually by indentation. The term may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching, abrasion or cutting. Brinell Hardness: Brinell hardness of aluminum alloys is obtained by measuring the permanent impression in the material made by a ball indenter 10 millimeters in diameter after loading with a 500 kilogram-force for 15 seconds and dividing the applied load by the area of the impression. Rockwell Hardness: An indentation test based on the depth of penetration of a specified penetrator into the specimen under certain arbitrarily fixed conditions.

Heat Streak
see "Streak, Heat."

Heat Treat Lot
See "Lot, Heat Treat."

Heat Treat Stain
A discoloration due to non-uniform oxidation of the metal surface during solution heat treatment.

Heat Treating
Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way as to obtain desired conditions or properties. Commonly used as a shop term to denote a thermal treatment to increase strength. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this definition -- see "Solution Heat Treating," "Aging."

Heat-Treatable Alloy
An alloy which may be strengthened by a suitable thermal treatment.

Herringbone
see "Streak, Herringbone."

Hole
Void in rolled product. Typical cause is a non-metallic inclusion during rolling.

Holiday
Region where film is absent due to non-wetting of the metal surface by the coating.

Homogenizing
Is a process whereby ingots are raised to temperatures near the solidus temperature and held at that temperature for varying lengths of time. The purposes of this process are to (l) reduce microsegregation by promoting diffusion of solute atoms within the grains of aluminum and (2) improve workability.

Hook
An abrupt deviation from straightness. Hook can be caused by non-uniform metal flow during breakthrough. See also "Bow."

Hot Line Pickup
See "Pickup, Roll."

Hot Shortness
A condition of the metal at excessively high working temperatures characterized by low mechanical strength and a tendency for the metal to crack rather than deform.

Hot SpOt
Dark grey or black surface patches appearing after anodizing. These areas are usually associated with lower hardness and coarse magnesium silicide precipitate caused by non-uniform cooling after extrusion.

Hot Tear
See "Tear, Speed."

Hot Working
Plastic deformation of metal at such temperature and rate that strain hardening does not occur.

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I

Impact
A part formed in a confining die from a metal slug, usually cold, by rapid single stroke application of force through a punch, causing the metal to flow around the punch and/or through an opening in the punch or die.

Inclusion
Foreign material in the metal or impressed into the surface.

Inclusion, Stringer
An impurity, metallic or non-metallic, which is trapped in the ingot and elongated subsequently in the direction of working. It may be revealed during working or finishing as a narrow streak parallel to the direction of working.

Incomplete Seam
See "Weld, Incomplete."

Ingot
A cast form suitable for remelting or fabricating. See "Remelt Ingot," "Fabricating Ingot," "Extrusion Ingot," "Forging Ingot," "Rolling Ingot."

Inspection Lot
See "Lot, Inspection."

Interleaving
The insertion of paper or application of suitable strippable coatings between layers of metal to protect from damage.

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J

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K

Kink
(1) For rolled products, an abrupt bend or deviation from flat which is caused by localized bending during handling. (2) For extrusions, an abrupt deviation from straightness. A kink can be caused by handling.

Knife Mark
See "Mark, Knife."

Knock-Out Mark
See "Mark, Knock-Out."

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L

Lacquer
Occasionally used to describe oil stain. See "Stain, Oil."

Lamination
An internal crack or separation aligned parallel to the direction of major metal flow and, in the case of plate, sheet or foil, parallel to the rolled surfaces. In extrusions, it can be caused by contaminants that feed into the metal flow before it reache

Lap
See "Fold."

Lateral Bow
See "Bow, Lateral."

Layout Sample
A prototype forging or a "cast" used to determine conformance to designed dimensions.

Leveling
The mechanical flattening of plate, sheet or foil.

Leveling, Roller
Leveling carried out by bending.

Leveling, Stretcher
Leveling carried out by uniaxial tension.

Leveling, Tension
Leveling continuously carried out by uniaxial stretching usually with the assistance of bending.

Leveling, Thermal
Leveling carried out at an elevated temperature under an applied load normal to the surface to be flattened.

Leveller Chatter
see "Mark, Chatter (Roll or Leveller)."

Leveller Mark
See "Dent, Repeating."

Leveller Streak
See"Streak, Leveller."

Line, Flow
The line pattern which shows the direction of flow on the surface.

Line, Looper
Closely spaced symmetrical lines on the surface of metal which has undergone non-uniform deformation, usually in a drawing operation.

Line, LuderS
Elongated surface markings or depressions appearing in patterns caused by localized plastic deformation that results from non-uniform yielding.

Line, Weld
See "Seam, Extrusion."

Liner
The slab ofcoating metal that is placed on the core alloy and is subsequently rolled down to clad sheet as composite.

Liquated Edge
see "Edge, Liquated."

Liquation
The bleeding of the low-melting constituents through the solidified ingot surface.

Lock
A condition in which the parting line of a forging is not all in one plane.

Log
See "Extrusion Log."

Long Transverse Direction
For plate, sheet and forgings, the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction which is also at right angles to the thickness of the product. See also "Longitudinal Direction."

Longitudinal Bow
See "Bow, Longitudinal."

Longitudinal Direction
The direction of major metal flow in a working operation.

Looper Line
See"Line, Looper."

Loose Wrap
See "Wrap, Loose."

Lot, Heat Treat
Material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size traceable to one heat-treat furnace load (or extrusion charge or billet in the case of press heat-treated extrusions) or, if heat treated in a continuous furnace, charged consecutively during

Lot, Inspection
(1) For non-heat treated tempers, an identifiable quantity of material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size submitted for inspection at one time. (2) For heat treated tempers, an identifiable quantity of material of the same mill form, a

Lube, High
Lubricant limit exceeds the maximum agreed upon limit measured in weight per unit area.

Lube, Low
Failure of the lubricant to meet the agreed upon minimum limit measured in weight per unit area.

Luders Line
See "Line, Luders."

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M

Mark
Damage in the surface of the product whose name is often described by source.

Mark, Arbor
Surface damage in the vicinity ofa coil ill caused by contact with a roughened, damaged or non-circular arbor.

Mark, Bearing
A depression in the extruded surface caused by a change in bearing length in the extrusion die.

Mark, Bite
A line which is generally perpendicular to the rolling direction.

Mark, Bristle
Raised surface about one inch long, crimped wire shaped and oriented in any direction.

Mark, Carbon
Gray or black surface marking caused by contact with carbon runout blocks.

Mark, Chatter (Roll or Leveller)
Numerous intermittent lines or grooves that are usually full width and perpendicular to the rolling or extrusion direction.

Mark, Drag
see "Rub, Tool."

Mark, Edge Follower
Faint intermittent marks at the edge of a cold rolled product which are usually perpendicular to the rolling direction. This mark is caused by action of devices designed to rewind coils without weave.

Mark, Handling
(l) For rolled products, an area of broken surface that is introduced after processing. The mark usually has no relationship to the rolling direction. (2) For extrusions, damage that can be imparted to the surface during handling operations.

Mark, Heat Treat Contact
Brownish, iridescent, irregularly shaped stain with a slight abrasion located somewhere within the boundary of the stain. It is a result of metal-to-metal contact during the quenching of solution heat-treated flat sheet or plate.

Mark, Inclusion
Appearance of surface where actual inclusion or the void it left is observed. See also "Inclusion, Stringer."

Mark, Knife
A continuous scratch (which may also be creased) near a slit edge, caused by sheet contacting the slitter knife.

Mark, Knock-Out
A small solid protrusion or circular fin on a forging or a casting, resulting from the depression of a knock-out pin under pressure or inflow of metal between the knock-out pin and the die or mold.

Mark, Leveller Chatter
See "Mark, Chatter (Roll or Leveller)."

Mark, Metal-on-RoII
See "Dent, Repeating."

Mark, Mike
Narrow continuous line near the rolled edge caused by a contacting micrometer.

Mark, Pinch
See "Crease."

Mark, Roil
(l) For rolled products, a small repeating raised or depressed area caused by the opposite condition on a roll. The repeat distance is a function of the offending roll diameter. (2) For extrusions, a longitudinal groove or indentation caused by pressure f

Mark, Roll Bruise
A greatly enlarged roll mark whose height or depth is very shallow. See also "Mark, Roll."

Mark, Roll Skid
A full width line perpendicular to the rolling direction and repeating as a function of a work roll diameter.

Mark, Rub
A large number of very fine scratches or abrasions. A rub mark can occur by metal-to-metal contact, movement in handling and movement in transit.

Mark, Snap
A band-like pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded section and perpendicular to its length. A snap mark can occur whenever there is an abrupt change in the extrusion process. See also "Mark, Stop."

Mark, Stop
A band-like pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded section and perpendicular to its length. A stop mark occurs whenever the extrusion process is suspended. See also "Mark, Snap."

Mark, Stretcher Jaw
A cross hatched appearance left by jaws at the end(s) of metal that has been stretched. These marks are seen if insufficient metal has been removed after the stretching operation.

Mark, Tab
see "Buckle, Arbor."

Mark, Tail
see "Mark, Roll Bruise."

Mark, Take Up
see "Scratch, Tension."

Mark, Traffic
Abrasion which results from relative movement between contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. A dark color from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. A mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contact

Mark, Whip
A surface abrasion which is generally diagonal to the rolling direction. It is caused by a fluttering action of the metal as it enters the rolling mill.

Master Alloy
See "Hardener."

Mean Diameter
The average of two measurements of the diameter at right angles to each other.

Mechanical Properties
Those properties of a material that are associated with elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied, or that involve the relationship between stress and strain; for example, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, endurance limit. These propert

Mike Mark
Narrow continuous line near the rolled edge caused by a contacting micrometer.

Minimum Residual Stress (MRS)
The term applied to products, usually flat rolled, which have been processed to minimize internal stress of the kind that causes distortion when material is disproportionately removed from one of the two surfaces through mechanical or chemical means.

Mismatch
Error in register between two halves of a forging by opposing die halves not being in perfect alignment.

Modulus of Elasticity
The ratio of stress to corresponding strain throughout the range where they are proportional. As there are three kinds of stresses. so there are three kinds of moduli of elasticity for any material--modulus in tension, in compression, and in shear.

Mottling, Pressure
Non-uniform surface appearance resulting from uneven pressure distribution between adjacent layers of the product.

Mullen Test
Measurement of bursting strength of foil in pounds per square inch. Testing machine applies increasing pressure to one square inch of the sample until it ruptures.

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N

Natural Aging
See "Aging."

Nick
Rolled products, see "Scratch." Extrusions, see "Mark, Handling."

Non-Heat-Treatable Alloy
An alloy which can be strengthened only by cold work.

Nonfill
Failure of metal to fill a forging die impression.

Notch, Double Shear
An abrupt deviation from straight on a sheared edge. This offset may occur if the flat sheet or plate product is longer than the blade for the final shearing operation.

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O

Off Gauge
Deviation of thickness or diameter of a solid product, or wall thickness of a tubular product, from the standard or specified dimensional tolerances.

Offset
Yield strength by the "offset method" is computed from a load-strain curve obtained by means of an extensometer. A straight line is drawn parallel to the initial straight line portion of the load-strain curve and at a distance to the right corresponding

Oil Stain
See "Stain, Oil."

Orange Peel
Surface roughening on formed products which occurs when large grains in the metal are present.

Oscillation
uneven wrap in coiling and lateral travel during winding. Improper alignment of rolls over which the metal passes before rewinding and insufficient rewind tension are typical causes. See also "Telescoping."

Out-of-Register
An embossed pattern distortion due to misalignment of the male and female embossing rolls.

Ovality
Deviation from a circular periphery, usually expressed as the total difference found at any one cross section between the individual maximum and minimum diameters, which usually occur at or about 90 degrees to each other. Since ovality is the difference b

Ovalness
See "Ovality"

Oxide Discoloration
See "Stain, Heat Treat."

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P

Pack Rolling
The simultaneous rolling of two or more thicknesses of foil.

Parent Coil
A coil that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. The parent coil may subsequently be cut into two or more smaller coils or into individual sheets or plates to provide the required width and length.

Parent Plate
A plate that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. The parent plate may subsequently be cut into two or more smaller plates to provide the required width and length.

Partial Annealing
see "Annealing, Partial.

Parting Line
A condition unique to stepped extrusions where more than one cross section exists in the same extruded shape. A stepped shape uses a split die for the minor or small cross section and after its removal, another die behind it for the major configuration. S

Patterned Sheet
See "Embossing."

Physical Properties
The properties, other than mechanical properties, that pertain to the physics of a material; for example, density, electrical conductivity, heat conductivity, thermal expansion.

Pick-Off
The transfer of portions of the coating from one surface of the sheet to an adjacent surface due to poor adhesion of the coating.

PickUp
Small particles of oxide adhering to the surface of a product at irregular intervals.

Pickup, Repeating
see "Dent, Repeating."

Pickup, Roll
small particles of aluminum and aluminum oxide generated in the roll bite which subsequently transfer to the rolled product. It may be distributed uniformly and/ or in streaks. See also "Streak, Coating."

PIE
Price in effect at time of purchase.

Pinch Mark
See "Crease."

Pinhole
(1) Minute hole in foil. (2) A small-sized void in the coating of a sheet or foil product. A typical cause is solvent popping.

Pipe
Tube in standardized combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness, commonly designated by "Nominal Pipe Sizes" and "ANSI Schedule Numbers."

Pipe, Drawn
Pipe brought to the final dimensions by drawing through a die.

Pipe, Extruded
Pipe formed by hot extruding.

Pipe, Seamless
Extruded or drawn pipe which does not contain any line junctures resulting from the method of manufacture.

Pipe, Structural
Pipe commonly used for structural purposes.

Piping
see "Back End Condition."

Pit
A depression in the rolled surface which is usually not visible from opposite side.

Pitting
See "Corrosion."

Plate
:A rolled product that is rectangular in cross section and with thickness not less than 0.250 inch with sheared or sawed edges.

Plate Circle
circle cut from plate.

Plate, Alclad
Composite plate comprised of an aluminum alloy core having on both surfaces (if on one side only, Alclad One Side Plate) a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core agai

Pop, Solvent
Blister and/or void in the coating resulting from trapped solvents released during curing process.

Precipitation Hardening
see "Aging."

Precipitation Heat Treating
see"Aging."

Preheating
A high temperature soaking treatment to provide a desired metallurgical structure. Homogenizing is a form of preheating.

Pressure Mottling
See "Mottling, Pressure."

Profile
A wrought product that is long in relation to its cross-sectional dimensions which is of a form other than that of sheet, plate, rod, bar, tube, wire or foil.

Profile, Class 1 Hollow Extruded
A hollow extruded profile, the void of which is round and 1 inch or more in diameter and whose weight is equally distributed on opposite sides of two or more equally spaced axes.

Profile, Class 2 Hollow Extruded
Any hollow extruded profile other than Class 1, which does not exceed a 5-inch diameter circumscribing circle and has a single void of not less than O.375-inch diameter or 0.11O-square inch area.

Profile, Class 3 Hollow Extruded
Any hollow extruded profile other than Class 1 or Class 2.

Profile, Cold-Finished
A profile brought to final dimensions by cold-working to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.

Profile, Cold-Finished Extruded
A profile produced by cold-finishing an extruded profile.

Profile, Cold-Finished Rolled
A profile produced by cold-finishing a rolled profile.

Profile, Drawn
A profile brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die.

Profile, Extruded
A profile produced by hot extruding.

Profile, Flute Hollow
A hollow profile having plain inside surfaces and whose outside surfaces comprise regular, longitudinal, concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations.

Profile, Helical Extruded
An extruded profile twisted along its length.

Profile, Hollow
A profile any part of whose cross section completely encloses a void.

Profile, Lip Hollow
A hollow profile of generally circular cross section and nominally uniform wall thickness with one hollow or solid protuberance or lip parallel to the longitudinal axis; used principally for heat-exchange purposes.

Profile, Pinion Hollow
A hollow profile with regularly spaced, longitudinal serrations outside and round inside, used primarily for making small gears.

Profile, Rolled
A profile produced by hot rolling.

Profile, Semihollow
A profile any part of whose cross section is a partially enclosed void the area of which is substantially greater than the square of the width of the gap. The ratio of the area of the void to the square of the gap is dependent on the class of semihollow p

Profile, Solid
A profile other than hollow or semihollow.

Profile, Stepped Extruded
An extruded profile whose cross section changes abruptly in area at intervals along its length.

Profile, Streamline Hollow
A hollow profile with a cross section of tear-drop shape.

Profile, Structural
A profile in certain standard alloys, tempers, sizes, and sections, such as angles, channels, H-sections, I-beams, tees, and zees commonly used for structural purposes. For channels and I-beams, there are two standards, namely Aluminum Association Standar

Profile, Tapered Extruded
An extruded profile whose cross section changes continuously in area along its length or a specified portion thereof.

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Q

Quarter Buckle
See "Buckle, Quarter."

Quenching
Controlled rapid cooling of a metal from an elevated temperature by contact with a liquid, a gas, or a solid.

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R

RCS
Abbreviation for Rigid Container Sheet.

Razor Streak
see "Inclusion, Stringer."

Rear End Condition
See "Back End Condition."

Redraw Rod
This term is not recommended. The term "Drawing Stock" is preferred.

Refined Aluminum
Aluminum of very high purity (99.950 percent or higher) obtained by special metallurgical treatments.

Reflector Sheet
Sheet suitable for the manufacture of reflectors.

Reheating
Heating metal again to hot-working temperature. In general no structural changes are intended.

Reoil
oil put on the sheet after cleaning and before coiling for shipment to prevent water stain.

Reroll Stock
A semi-finished rolled product of rectangular cross section in coiled form suitable for further rolling. Examples: "Foil Stock" and "Sheet Stock."

Rib
An elongated projection on a shape, forging or casting to provide stiffening.

Rivet
See "Wire, Cold Heading."

Rod
A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its circular cross section, which is not less than 0.375 inch diameter.

Rod, Alclad
Rod having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corrosion.

Rod, Cold-Finished
Rod brought to final dimensions by cold working to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.

Rod, Cold-Finished Extruded
Rod produced by cold working extruded rod.

Rod, Cold-Finished Rolled
Rod produced by cold working rolled rod.

Rod, Cold-Heading
Rod of a quality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-headed products such as rivets and bolts.

Rod, Extruded
Rod produced by hot extruding.

Rod, Rivet
See "Rod, Cold Heading."

Rod, Rolled
Rod produced by hot rolling.

Roll Chatter
See "Mark, Chatter (Roll or Leveller)".

Roll Coating
see "Streak, Coating."

Roll Grind
The uniform ground finish on the work rolls which is imparted to the sheet or plate during rolling.

Roll Mark
See "Mark, Roll."

Roll Pickup
See "Pickup, Roll."

Rolled Ring
See "Forging, Rolled Ring."

Rolled-in Metal
An extraneous chip or particle of metal rolled into the surface of the product.

Rolled-ln Scratch
See"Scratch, Rolled-In."

Rolled-over Edge
See "Edge, Liquated."

Rolling Ingot
A cast form suitable for rolling. See "Fabricating Ingot."

Rolling Slab
A rectangular semifinished product, produced by hot rolling fabricating ingot and suitable for further rolling.

Roofing Sheet
Coiled or flat sheet in specific tempers, widths, and thicknesses suitable for the manufacture of corrugated or v-crimp roofing.

Roping
A rope-like appearance in the rolling direction after the metal has undergone severe deformation.

Roundness
This term is not recommended. The term "Ovality" is preferred.

Rub Mark
See "Mark, Rub."

Rub, Tool
A surface area showing a scratch or abrasion resulting from contact of the hot extrusion with the press equipment or tooling or, in the case of multi-hole dies, with others sections as they exit the press.

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S

Sample
A part, portion, or piece taken for purposes of inspection or test as representative of the whole.

Saw-Plate Bar
see "Bar, Saw-Plate."

Scalping
Mechanical removal of the surface layer from a fabricating ingot or semi-finished wrought product so that surface imperfections will not be worked into the finished product.

Scratch
(1) For rolled products, a sharp indentation in the surface usually caused by a machine or during handling. (2) For extrusions, a synonym for handling mark. See "Mark, Handling."

Scratch, Drawn-ln
A scratch occurring during the fabricating process and subsequently drawn over, making it relatively smooth to the touch.

Scratch, Friction
A scratch caused by relative motion between two contacting surfaces.

Scratch, Handling
A more severe form ofrub mark. See "Mark, Rub."

Scratch, Machine
An indentation which is straight, is in the rolling direction and is caused by contact with a sharp projection on equipment.

Scratch, Oscillation
Minor indentations at an angle to the rolling direction that result from coil oscillation during unwinding or rewinding.

Scratch, Oven
A scratch which is caused by moving contact of coating against a non-moving object in an oven.

Scratch, Rolled-ln
A scratch which is subsequently rolled. It will then appear as a greyish white ladder (distinct transverse lines within the longitudinal indentation).

Scratch, Slippage
See "Scratch, Tension."

Scratch, Tension
A short longitudinal indentation parallel to the rolling direction.

Seam Defect
An unbonded fold or lap on the surface.of the metal, which appears as a crack, usually the result of a defect in working that has not bonded shut.

Seam, Extrusion
The junction line of metal that has passed through a hollow die, separated and rejoined at the exit point. Seams are present in all extruded hollows produced from the direct extrusion process and in many cases are not visible. See "Weld, Incomplete."

Seamless
A hollow product which does not contain any line junctures resulting from method of manufacture.

Section Number
The number assigned to an extruded or drawn profile (shape) for identification and cataloging purposes, usually the same number assigned for the same purpose to the die from which the profile (shape) is made.

Serpentine Weave
See "Snaking."

Shape
This term is no longer recommended. The term "Profile" is preferred. See "Profile."

Shear Strength
The maximum stress that a material is capable of sustaining in shear. In practice, shear strength is considered to be the maximum average stress computed by dividing the ultimate load in the plane of shear by the original area subject to shear. Shear str

Sheet
A rolled product that is rectangular in cross section with thickness less than 0.250 inch but not less than 0.006 inch and with slit, sheared or sawed edges.

Sheet Stock
See "Reroll Stock."

Sheet, Alclad
Composite sheet comprised of an aluminum alloy core having on both surfaces (if one side only, Alclad One Side Sheet) a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core against

Sheet, Anodizing
Sheet with metallurgical characteristics and surface quality suitable for the development of protective and decorative films by anodic oxidation processes.

Sheet, Clad
Composite sheet having on both surfaces (if on one side only, Clad One Side Sheet) a metallurgically bonded metal coating, the composition of which may or may not be the same as that of the core.

Sheet, Coiled
Sheet in coils with slit edges.

Sheet, Coiled Circles
Circles cut from coiled sheet.

Sheet, Coiled Cut to Length
Sheet cut to specified length from coils and which has a lesser degree of flatness than flat sheet.

Sheet, Flat
Sheet with sheared, slit or sawed edges, which has been flattened or leveled.

Sheet, Flat Circles
Circles cut from flat sheet.

Sheet, Mill Finish (MF)
Sheet having a non-uniform finish that may vary from sheet to sheet and within a sheet, and may not be entirely free from stains or oil.

Sheet, One Side Bright Mill Finish (1SBMF)
sheet having a moderate degree of brightness on one side and a mill finish on the other.

Sheet, Painted
sheet, one or both sides of which has a factory-applied paint coating of controlled thickness.

Sheet, Standard One Side Bright Finish (S1SBF)
Sheet having a uniform bright finish on one side and a mill finish on the other.

Sheet, Standard Two Sides Bright Finish (S2SBF)
Sheet having a uniform bright finish on both sides.

Short Transverse Direction
For plate, sheet and forgings, the direction through the thickness perpendicular to both longitudinal and long transverse directions.

Shrinkage
contraction that occurs when metal cools from the hot-working temperature.

Side Crack
See"Edge, Broken (Cracked)."

Side Set
A difference in thickness between the two edges of plate, sheet or foil. .

Skip
An area of uncoated sheet which is frequently caused by equipment malfunction.

Slippage Scratch
see "Scratch, Tension."

Slitter Hair
See "Hair, Slitter."

Sliver
Thin fragment of aluminum which is part of the material but only partially attached. Surface damage or residualliquation which is subsequently rolled are typical causes.

Slug
A metal blank for forging or impacting.

Smudge
A dark film of debris, sometimes covering large areas, deposited on the sheet during rolling.

Smut
See "Smudge."

Snaking
A series of reversing lateral bows in coil products. This condition is caused by a weaving action during an unwinding or rewinding operation.

Solution Heat Treating
Heating an alloy at a suitable temperature for sufficient time to allow soluble constituents to enter into solid solution where they are retained in a supersaturated state after quenching.

Specimen
That portion of a sample taken for evaluation of some specific characteristic or property.

Speed Crack
See "Tear, Speed."

Speed Tear
see "Tear, Speed."

Splice
The end joint uniting two webs.

Spot, Lube
A non-uniform extraneous deposit oflube on the coated sheet.

Squareness
Characteristic of having adjacent sides or planes meeting at 90 degrees.

Stabilizing
A low temperature thermal treatment designed to prevent age-softening in certain strain hardened alloys containing magnesium.

Stain, Heat Treat
A discoloration due to non-uniform oxidation of the metal surface during heat treatment.

Stain, Oil
Surface discoloration which may vary from dark brown to white and is produced during thermal treatment by incomplete evaporation and/or oxidation of lubricants on the surface.

Stain, Saw Lubricant
A yellow to brown area of surface discoloration at the ends of the extruded length. It is the residue of certain types of saw lubricants if they are not removed from the metal prior to the thermal treatment.

Stain, Water
See "Corrosion, Water Stain."

Starvation
Non-uniform coating application results in absence of coating in certain areas.

Sticking
Adherence offoil surfaces sufficient to interfere with the normal ease of unwinding.

Straightness
The absence of divergence from a right (straight) line in the direction of measurement.

Strain
A measure of the change in size or shape of a body under stress, referred to its original size or shape. Tensile or compressive strain is the change, due to force, per unity of length in an original linear dimension in the direction of the force. It is us

Strain Hardening
Modification of a metal structure by cold working resulting in an increase in strength and hardness with loss of ductility.

Streak (Stripe)
A superficial band or elongated mark which produces a non-uniform surface appearance. A streak is often described by source.

Streak, Bearing
A longitudinal discoloration that can occur where there are large changes in wall thickness as a result of uneven cooling. These streaks usually appear lighter than the surrounding metal.

Streak, Bright
A bright superficial band or elongated mark which produces a non-uniform surface appearance.

Streak, Buff
A dull continuous streak caused by smudge buildup on a buff used at shearing or other operations.

Streak, Burnish
A bright region on the sheet caused by excessive roll surface wear.

Streak, Coating
A banded condition caused by non-uniform adherence of roll coating to a work roll. It can be created during hot and/or cold rolling. If generated in the hot rolling process, it is also called "Hot Mill Pickup."

Streak, Cold
See "Streak, Heat."

Streak, Diffusion
Surface discoloration which may vary from gray to brown and found only on Alclad products.

Streak, Dirt
Surface discoloration which may vary from gray to black, is parallel to the direction of rolling, and contains rolled in foreign debris. It is usually extraneous material from an overhead location that drops onto the rolling surface and is shallow enough

Streak, Grease
A narrow discontinuous streak caused by rolling over an area containing grossly excessive lubricant drippage.

Streak, Grinding
A streak with a helical pattern appearance transferred to a rolled product from a work roll.

Streak, Heat
Milky colored band(s) parallel to the rolling direction which vary in both width and exact location along the length.

Streak, Herringbone
Elongated alternately bright and dull chevron markings.

Streak, Leveller
A streak on the sheet surface in the rolling direction caused by transfer from the leveler rolls.

Streak, Mill Buff
See "Streak, Roll."

Streak, Pickup
See "Streak, Coating."

Streak, Roll
A non-uniform surface appearance parallel to the rolling direction.

Streak, Structural
A non-uniform appearance on an etched or anodized surface caused by heterogeneities (variabilities) remaining in the metal from the casting, thermal processes or hot working stages of fabrication.

Stress
Force per unit of area. Stress is normally calculated on the basis of the original cross-sectional dimensions. The three kinds of stresses are tensile, compressive, and shear.

Stress Corrosion Cracking
see "Corrosion, Stress Cracking."

Stress Relieving
The reduction of the effects of internal residual stresses by thermal or mechanical means.

Stretcher Strain
See "Line, Luders."

Striation
Longitudinal non-uniform coating thickness caused by uneven application of the liquid coating.

Strip
This term is not recommended. The term "Sheet" is preferred.

Structural Streak
see "Streak, Structural."

Suck-ln
A defect caused when one face of a forging is sucked in to fill a projection on the opposite side.

Surface Tear
Minute surface cracks on rolled products which can be caused by insufficient ingot scalping.

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T

Tail Mark
see "Mark, Roll Bruise."

Tear, Speed
A series of surface cracks perpendicular to the extruding direction. Speed tearing normally occurs in corner radii or extremities of a section and is caused by localized high temperature.

Telescoping
Lateral stacking, primariy in one direction, of wraps in a coil so that the edges of the coil are conical rather than flat Improper alignment of rolls over which the metal passes before rewinding is a typical cause. See also "Oscillation."

Temper
The condition produced by either mechanical or thermal treatment, or both, and characterized by a certain structure and mechanical properties.

Tensile Strength
In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. Also called "Ultimate Strength."

Tension Scratch
See "Scratch, Tension."

Tolerance
Allowable deviation from a nominal or specified dimension.

Tool
A term usually referring to the dies, mandrels, etc., used in the production of extruded or drawn shapes or tube.

Tooling Pad
See "Chucking Lug."

Tooling Plate
A cast or rolled product of rectangular cross section of thickness 0.250 inch or greater, and with edges either as-cast, sheared or sawed, with internal stress levels controlled to achieve maximum stability for machining purposes in tool and jig applicati

Torn Surface
A deep longitudinal rub mark resulting from abrasion by extrusion or drawing tools.

Traffic Mark
Abrasion which results from relative movement between contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. A dark color from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. A mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contact

Transverse Bow
See "Bow, Transverse."

Transverse Direction
A direction perpendicular to the direction of working.

Tread Plate
sheet or plate having a raised figured pattern on one surface to provide improved traction.

Trim Inclusion
Edge trimming accidentally wound into a roll of foil.

Tube
A hollow wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is symmetrical and is round, a regular hexagon or octagon, elliptical, or square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners, and that has uniform wall thickness except as affe

Tube Bloom
This term is not recommended. The term "Tube Stock" is preferred.

Tube Stock
A semifinished tube suitable for the production of drawn tube.

Tube, Alclad
composite tube composed of an aluminum alloy core having on either the inside or outside surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion.

Tube, Arc-Welded
Tube made from sheet or plate butt welded by either gas-tungsten or gas-metal arc-welding method, with or without the use of filler metal.

Tube, Brazed
A tube produced by forming and seam-brazing sheet.

Tube, Butt-Welded
A welded tube, the seam of which is formed by positioning one edge of the sheet against the other for welding.

Tube, Drawn
A tube brought to final dimensions by cold drawing through a die. (Note: This product may be produced from either seamless or non-seamless extruded stock or from welded stock.)

Tube, Embossed
A tube the outside surface of which has been roll-embossed with a design in relief regularly repeated in a longitudinal direction.

Tube, Extruded
A tube formed by hot extruding. (Note: This product may be either seamless or non-seamless.)

Tube, Finned
Tube which has integral fins or projections protruding from its outside surface.

Tube, Fluted
A tube of nominally uniform wall thickness having regular, longitudinal, concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations.

Tube, Heat-Exchanger
A tube for use in apparatus in which fluid inside the tube will be heated or cooled by huid outside the tube. The term usually is not applied to coiled tube or to tubes for use in refrigerators or radiators.

Tube, Helical-Welded
A welded tube produced by winding the sheet to form a closed helix and joining the edges of the seam by welding.

Tube, Lap-Welded
A welded tube the seam of which is formed by longitudinally lapping the edges of the sheet for welding.

Tube, Lock-Seam
A tube produced by forming and mechanically lock-seaming sheet.

Tube, Open-Seam
A shape normally produced from sheet of nominally uniform wall thickness and approximately tubular form but having a longitudinal unjointed seam or gap of width not greater than 25 percent of the outside diameter or greatest over-all dimension. Also refer

Tube, Redraw
This term is not recommended. The term "Tube Stock" is preferred.

Tube, Seamless
A tube that does not contain any line junctures (metallurgicalwelds) resulting from the method of manufacture. (Note: This product may be produced by die and mandrel or by hot piercer processes.)

Tube, Sized
A tube that, after extrusion, has been cold drawn a slight amount to minimize ovality.

Tube, Stepped Drawn
A drawn tube whose cross section changes abruptly in area at intervals along its length.

Tube, Structural
Tube commonly used for structural purposes.

Tube, Welded
A tube produced by forming and seam-welding sheet longitudinally.

Tubing
This term is not recommended. The term "tube" is preferred.

Tubing-Electrical Metallic
A tube having certain standardized length and combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness thinner than that of "Rigid Conduit," commonly designated by nominal electrical trade sizes, for use with compression-type fittings as a protection for elect

Tubular Conductor
A tubular product suitable for use as an electric conductor.

Twist
(l) For rolled products, a winding departure from flatness. (2) For extrusions, a winding departure from straightness.

Two-Tone
A sharp color demarcation in the appearance of the metal due to a difference in the work roll coating.

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U

Ultimate Tensile Strength
See "Tensile Strength."

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V

Vent Mark
A small protrusion on a forging resulting from the entrance of metal into a die vent hole.

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W

Water Stain
see "Corrosion, Water Stain."

Wavy Edge
See "Buckle, Edge."

Weave
See "Oscillation."

Web
(l) A single thickness offoil as it leaves the rolling mill. (2) A connecting element between ribs, flanges, or bosses on shapes and forgings.

Weld Line
See "Seam, Extrusion."

Weld, Incomplete
The junction line of metal that has passed through a die forming a hollow profile (shape), separated and not completely rejoined. Flare testing is a method of evaluating weld integrity.

Welding
Joining two or more pieces of aluminum by applying heat or pressure, or both, with or without filler metal to produce a localized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface. (In cold welding, it is a solid state welding process in whic

Welding Rod
A rolled, extruded, or cast round filler metal for use in joining by welding.

Welding Wire
Wire for use as filler metal in joining by welding.

Wettability Test
The degree to which a metal surface may be wet to determine the absence of or the amount of residual rolling or added lubricants or deposits on the surface.

Whip Marks
See "Mark, Whip."

Whisker
See "Hair, Sliner."

Wire
A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners or edges, or is round, hexagonal, or octagonal, and whose diameter or greatest perpendicular distance between parallel face

Wire, Alclad
A composite wire product comprised of an aluminum-alloy wire having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corro

Wire, Cold-Heading
Wire of quality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-headed products such as rivets and bolts.

Wire, Drawn
Wire brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die.

Wire, Extruded
Wire produced by hot extruding.

Wire, Flattened
wire having two parallel flat surfaces and rounded edges produced by roll-flattening round wire.

Wire, Flattened and Slit
Flattened wire that has been slit to obtain square edges.

Wire, Rivet
see "Wire, Cold-Heading."

Work Hardening
See"Strain Hardening."

Workability
The relative ease with which various alloys may be formed by rolling, extruding, forging, etc.

Wrap, Loose
A condition in a coil due to insufficient tension which creates a small void between adjacent wraps.

Wrinkle
see "Crease."

Wrought Product
A product that has been subjected to mechanical working by such processes as rolling, extruding, forging, etc.

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X

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Y

Yield Strength
The stress at which a material exhibits a specified permanent set The offset used for aluminum and its alloys is 0.2 percent of gauge length. For aluminum alloys the yield strengths in tension and compression are approximately equal.

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Z

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