Glossary

 
  • AMS

    Abbreviation for Aerospace Material Specification.

  • ANSI

    Abbreviation for American National Standards Institute.

  • ASME

    Abbreviation for American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  • ASTM

    Abbreviation for American Society for Testing and Materials.

  • AWS

    Abbreviation for American Welding Society.

  • Abrasion

    See "Mark, Traffic."

  • Age Hardening

    An aging process which results in increased strength and hardness.

  • Age Softening

    Spontaneous decrease of strength and hardness that takes place at room temperature in certain strain hardened alloys containing magnesium.

  • Aging

    Precipitation from solid solution resulting in a change in properties of an alloy, usually occurring slowly at room temperature (natural aging) and more rapidly at elevated temperatures (artificial aging).

  • Alclad

    An aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating that is metallurgically bonded to either one or both surfaces of an aluminum alloy product, and that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corrosion. For

  • Alligatoring

    See "Lamination."

  • Alloy

    A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more elements of which at least one is an elemental metal.

  • Angularity

    conformity to, or deviation from, specified angular dimensions in the cross section of a shape or bar.

  • Angulation

    The deliberate departure from a horizontal passline on the entry side of a rolling mill used for one-side bright rolling.

  • Annealing

    A thermal treatment to soften metal by removal of stress resulting from cold working or by coalescing precipitates from solid solution.

  • Annealing, Partial

    Thermal treatment (H2X temper nomenclature) given cold worked metal to reduce strength and increase ductility to controlled levels other than annealed temper.

  • Anodizing

    Forming a coating on a metal surface produced by electrochemical treatment through anodic oxidation.

  • Anodizing Sheet

    See "Sheet, Anodizing."

  • Arbor Break

    See "Buckle, Arbor."

  • Arbor Mark

    See "Mark, Arbor."

  • Artificial Aging

    see "Aging."

  • Back End Condition

    A condition occurring in the last metal to be extruded. It is a result of the oxidized surface of the billet feeding into the extrusion.

  • Backup Rolls

    Nongrooved rolls which stiffen or strengthen work rolls.

  • Bar

    A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section which is square or rectangular (excluding plate and flattened wire) with sharp or rounded corners or edges, or is a regular hexagon or octagon, and in which at least one perpendicular d

  • Bar, Cold-Finished

    Bar brought to final dimensions by cold work to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.

  • Bar, Cold-Finished Extruded

    cold-finished bar produced from extruded bar.

  • Bar, Cold-Finished Rolled

    cold-finished bar produced from rolled bar.

  • Bar, Extruded

    Bar brought to final dimensions by hot extruding.

  • Bar, Rolled

    Bar brought to final dimensions by hot rolling.

  • Bar, Saw-Plate

    Bar brought to final thickness by hot or cold rolling and to final width by sawing.

  • Base Box-General

    An agreed-upon unit of area used primarily in packaging applications. One common base box for aluminum is 31,360 square inches, originally composed of 112 rectangular sheets each 14 by 20 inches.

  • Belled Edge

    See "Edge, Belled."

  • Belly

    A loose center buckle extending to near the edges of a sheet.

  • Billet

    A hot worked semifinished product suitable for subsequent working by such methods as rolling, forging, extruding, etc.

  • Blank

    A piece of metal cut or formed to regular or irregular shape for subsequent processing such as by forming, bending or drawing. The piece of sheet stock cut out by blanking die. It will subsequently be drawn into a cup or end shell.

  • Bleed Out

    See "Two-Tone."

  • Blister

    A raised area on the surface of a extruded product due to subsurface gas expansion. This can occur during extrusion or thermal treatment.

  • Blister, Bond

    A raised spot on only one surface of the metal whose origin is between the cladding and core in clad products.

  • Blister, Coating

    A blister in the coating of an alclad or a clad product.

  • Blister, Core

    A raised spot (one or both sides) on rolled metal.

  • Block Mark

    See "Scratch, Tension."

  • Bloom

    A semifinished hot rolled product, rectangular or square in cross section, produced on a blooming mill.

  • Blow Hole

    A blister that has ruptured and may produce a void. See also "Blister."

  • Boss

    A knoblike projection on the main body of a forging or casting.

  • Bottom Dratt

    Taper or slope in the bottom of a forged depression to assist the flow of metal toward the sides of the depressed area.

  • Bow

    Longitudinal curvature of rod, bar, profiles (shapes), and tube. Bow is measured after allowing the weight of the extrusion to minimie the deviation. Bow can be caused by a non-uniform extrusion rate across the cross section resulting in one portion of the extrusion being longer than the other or non-uniform contraction during quenching.

  • Bow, Lateral

    Deviation from straight of a longitudinal edge.

  • Bow, Longitudinal

    Curvature in the plane of sheet or plate in the rolling direction.

  • Bow, Transverse

    Curvature across the rolling direction of sheet or plate.

  • Brazing

    Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 425C (800F) but lower than those of the metals being joined. This may be accomplished by means of a torch (torch brazing), in a furnace (furnace brazing), or by dipping in a molten flux bath (dip or flux brazing).

  • Brazing Rod

    A rolled, extruded, or casr round filler metal for use in joining by brazing.

  • Brazing Sheet

    Sheet of a brazing alloy, or sheet clad with a brazing alloy on one or both sides.

  • Brazing Wire

    Wire for use as a filler metal in joining by brazing.

  • Bright Sheet

    See "Sheet, (1SBMF), (S2SBF)."

  • Bristle Mark

    See "Mark, Bristle."

  • Broken Die

    A deviation from the desired cross section due to the absence of a certain portion of the die used to extrude the profile (shape).

  • Broken Edge

    See "Edge, Broken."

  • Broken Matte Finish

    Nonuniform surface on the inside of packed rolled foil (Bright Spots).

  • Broken Surface

    see "Crazing."

  • Bruise

    see "Mark, Roll Bruise."

  • Buckle

    A distortion of the surface of the metal.

  • Buckle, Arbor

    Bend, crease, wrinkle, or departure from flat, occurring perpendicular to the slit edge of a coil and which are repetitive in nature, with severity decreasing as the distance increases in the coil from the original source. Normally, it is found on the ID of a coil but can appear on the coil OD as a result of a prior winding operation.

  • Buckle, Center

    Undulation (wavy region) in the center of the metal.

  • Buckle, Edge

    Undulation (wavy region) along the edge(s) of the metal.

  • Buckle, Oil Can

    See "Buckle, Trapped."

  • Buckle, Trapped

    Undulation (wavy region) which is smaller sized and often circular in shape.

  • Buckle, Quarter

    Undulation (wavy region) which occur approximately at both quarter points across the width.

  • Buff Streak

    see"Streak."

  • Buffing

    A mechanical finishing operation in which fine abrasives are applied to a metal surface by rotating fabric wheels for the purpose of developing a lustrous finish.

  • Burnish Streak

    see "Streak, Bumish."

  • Burnishing

    See "Two-Tone."

  • Burr

    A thin ridge ofroughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting, trimming, shearing, blanking or sawing.

  • Bursting Strength

    The pressure required to rupture a foil specimen when it is tested in a Mullen instrument under specified conditions. See also "Mullen Test."

  • Bus Bar

    A rigid electric conductor in the form of a bar.

  • Butt-Seam Tube

    See "Tube, Open-Seam."

  • Camber

    See "Bow, Lateral."

  • Carbon Mark

    See "Mark, Carbon."

  • Center

    The difference in thickness between the middle and edges (average) of a sheet.

  • Center Buckle

    See"Buckle."

  • Chafing

    See "Mark, Traffic."

  • Chatter Mark

    see "Mark, Chatter."

  • Chip Mark

    See "Dent, Repeating."

  • Chop

    Metal sheared from a vertical surface of a die forging, which is spread by the die over an adjoining horizontal surface.

  • Chucking Lug

    A lug or boss added to a forging so that "on center" machining and forming may be performed with one setup or checking. This lug is finally machined or cut away.

  • Cinching

    see "Scratch, Tension."

  • Circle

    A circular blank fabricated from plate, sheet or foil.

  • Clad Sheet

    See "Sheet, Clad."

  • Coating

    Continuous film on the surface of a product.

  • Coating Blister

    see "Blister, Coating."

  • Coating Build-Up

    A coating thickness greater than nominal in localized area of sheet, usually along edges, due to uneven application techniques.

  • Coating Drip

    A non-uniform extraneous deposit of coating on the coated sheet.

  • Coating Oven Trash

    See "Dirt."

  • Coating Streak

    See "Streak, Coating."

  • Coating, High or Low

    Failure of the coating to meet the agreed upon thickness limits measured in weight per unit area.

  • Cobble

    (l) A jamming of the mill by aluminum product while being rolled. (2) A piece of aluminum which for any reason has become so bent or twisted that it must be withdrawn from the rolling operation and scrapped.

  • Coil Curvature

    See "Coil Set."

  • Coil Orientation

    Clockwise Coil: With the coil core vertical ("eye to the sky") and viewed from above, a trace of the metal edge from the ID to the OD involves clock-wise movement. Counter-Clockwise (Anti-Clockwise) Coil: With the coil core vertical ("eye to the sky") and viewed from above, a trace of the metal edge from the ID to the OD involves counter-clockwise (anti-clockwise) movement.

  • Coil Set

    Longitudinal bow in an unwound coil in the same direction as curvature of the wound coil.

  • Coil Set Differential

    The difference in coil set from edge to edge of a coiled sheet sample. It is measured with the sample on a flat table, concave side up, and is the difference in elevation of the corners on one end.

  • Coil Set, Reversed

    Longitudinal bow in an unwound coil in the direction opposite to the curvature of the wound coil.

  • Coiled Sheet

    see "Sheet, Coiled."

  • Cold Shut

    (l) A linear discontinuity in a cast surface caused when meeting streams of metal fail to merge prior to solidification. (2) A forging defect developed by metal flowing into a section from two directions, resulting in a discontinuity at the junction.

  • Cold Working

    plastic (i.e., permanent) deformation of metal at such temperature and rate that strain-hardening occurs.

  • Collapse

    out-of-round condition of coil often due to inappropriate tension during rewinding operations.

  • Coloring

    A finishing process, or combination of processes, which alters the appearance of an aluminum surface via coating, chemical and/or mechanical operations.

  • Concavity

    Curved like the inner surface of a sphere. See also "Convexity."

  • Concentricity

    Conformance to a common center as, for example, the inner and outer walls of round tube.

  • Condensation Stain

    See "Corrosion, Water Stain."

  • Condenser Tube

    The term "Heat-Exchanger Tube" is preferred, unless specific reference to a condenser application is intended.

  • Conduit

    A tube used to protect electric Wiring. See also "Tubing, Electrical Metallic."

  • Conduit, Rigid

    Conduit having dimensions of ANSI Schedule 40 pipe in standardized length with threaded ends.

  • Coned-out Coil

    see "Telescoping."

  • Contour

    That portion of the outline of a transverse cross section of an extruded shape that is represented by a curved line or curved lines.

  • Conversion Coating-Can Ends

    see "Coating, Conversion."

  • Convexity

    curved like the outer surface of a sphere. See also "Concavity"

  • Core

    A hollow cylinder on which a coiled product may be wound that forms the inside diameter of a coil.

  • Core Blister

    see "Blister, Core."

  • Coring

    see "Back End Condition."

  • Corner Turn-up

    A distortion, buckle or twist condition that causes the corner( s ) of the sheet to deviate from a perfectly flat plane on which it rests.

  • Corrosion

    The deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment.

  • Corrosion, Exfoliation

    Corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the metal surface, causing layers of the met(i} to be elevated by the formation of corrosion product.

  • Corrosion, Galvanic

    corrosion associated with the current of galvanic cell consisting of two dissimilar conductors in an electrolyte or two similar conductors in dissimilar electrolytes. Aluminum will corrode if it is anodic to the dissimilar metal.

  • Corrosion, Intergranular

    Corrosion occurring preferentially at grain boundaries (also termed intercrystalline corrosion).

  • Corrosion, Pitting

    Localized corrosion resulting in small pits or craters in a metal surface.

  • Corrosion, Stress Cracking

    Failure by cracking resulting from selective directional attack caused by the simultaneous interaction of sustained tensile stress at an exposed surface with the chemical or electro-chemical effects of the surface environment. The term is often abbreviated SCC which correctly stands for stress corrosion surfaces.

  • Corrosion, Water Stain

    Superficial oxidation of the surface with a water film, in the absence of circulating air, held between closely adjacent metal surfaces.

  • Corrugating

    Forming rolled metal into a series of straight parallel regular alternate grooves and ridges.

  • Costing, Conversion

    An inorganic pretreatment sometimes applied to metal surface to enhance coating adhesion and to retard corrosion.

  • Coupon

    A piece of metal from which a test specimen may be prepared.

  • Covering Area

    Yield expressed in terms of a given number of square inches in a pound. For metric units, use square metres per kilogram.

  • Crazing

    A macroscopic effect of numerous surface tears, transverse to the rolling direction, which can occur when the entry angle into the cold mill work rolls is large.

  • Crease

    A sharp deviation from flat in the sheet which is transferred from processing equipment subsequent to the roll bite.

  • Cross Hatching

    See "Crazing."

  • Crown

    See "Convexity."

  • Curl

    An undesirable condition caused by uneven rates of absorption or evaporation of moisture, uneven rates of contraction or expansion, or internal stresses in the material. Curl is most prevalent in laminated structures where the components have differing physical properties.

  • Deep Drawing

    Forming a deeply recessed part by forcing sheet metal to undergo plastic flow between dies, usually without substantial thinning of the sheet.

  • Defect

    A defect is anything that renders tfle aluminum unfit for the specific use for which it was ordered.

  • Dent

    (l) For rolled products, a sharply defined surface impression on the metal which may be caused by a blow from another object. (2) For extrusions, a synonym for handling mark. See "Mark, Handling."

  • Dent, Expansion

    Localized surface deviation from flat generated by expansion of vapor during thermal treatment of cold rolled coiled sheet.

  • Dent, Repeating

    Repeating depression caused by a particle adhering to a rotating roll over which the metal has passed.

  • Die Line

    A longitudinal depression or protrusion formed on the surface of drawn or extruded material. Die lines are present to some degree in all extrusions and are caused by a roughening of the die bearing.

  • Die Number

    The number assigned to a die for identification and cataloging purposes, and which usually is assigned for the same purpose to the product produced from that die.

  • Diffusion Streak

    See "Streak, Diffusion."

  • Dirt

    Foreign debris from rolling or post-rolling operations imbedded in or under the coating.

  • Disc

    A circular blank fabricated from plate, sheet or foil, from which a central concentric area has been removed.

  • Double Shear Notch

    See "Notch, Double Shear."

  • Draft

    Taper on the sides of a die or mold impression to facilitate removal of forgings, castings or patterns from dies or molds.

  • Drag Mark

    See "Rub, Tool."

  • 'Draw and Iron'-Can Bodies

    Term which refers to a method of fabricating a can body in which a cup is drawn from flat sheet, redrawn to the final diameter and then wall ironed to reduce the wall thickness and to achieve the required height.

  • Drawing

    (l) In forging, an operation of working metal between flat dies to reduce the cross section and increase length. (2) The process of pulling material through a die to reduce the size, change the cross section or shape, or harden the material.

  • Drawing Stock

    A hot worked intermediate solid product of uniform cross section along its whole length, supplied in coils and of a quality suitable for drawing into wire.

  • Drawn Product

    A product formed by pulling material through a die.

  • Drawn-ln Scratch

    See "Scratch, Drawn-In."

  • Dropped Edge

    See "Edge, Dropped."

  • Dry Sheet

    see "Lube, Low."

  • Dry Surface

    A foil surface substantially free from oily film, and suitable for lacquering, printing, or coating with water-dispersed adhesives.

  • Duct Sheet

    Coiled or flat sheet in specific tempers, widths and thicknesses, suitable for duct applications.

  • Ductility

    The property that permits permanent deformation before fracture by stress in tension.

  • Earing

    wavy symmetrical projections formed during cupping, deep drawing or spinning. Earing is caused by nonuniform directional properties in the aluminum and/or by improperly adjusted tooling.

  • Ears

    Wavy symmetrical projections formed in the course of deep drawing or spinning as a result of directional properties or anisotropy in sheet. Ears occur in groups of 4 or 8 with the peaks of the projections located at 45 degrees and/or at 0 and 90 degrees to the rolling direction. Degree of earing is the difference between average height at the peaks and average height at the valleys, divided by average height at the valleys, multiplied by 100 and expressed in percent.

  • Eccentricity

    Deviation from a common center, as, for example, the inner and outer walls of a round tube. The difference between the mean wall thickness and minimum or maximum wall thickness at any one cross section. The permissible degree of eccentricity can be expressed by a plus and minus wall-thickness tolerance.

  • Edge, Band

    See "Two-Tone."

  • Edge, Belled

    Excessive buildup of material on edge(s) during a rewinding operation. Typical causes include excessive edge burr, turned edge, and "dog bone" shaped cross sectional profiles.

  • Edge, Broken {Cracked)

    Edge(s) containing crack, split, and/or tear which is caused by inability to deform without fracturing.

  • Edge, Buildup

    See "Edge, Belled."

  • Edge, Damaged

    Edge of a coil that has been bent, torn or scraped by an object.

  • Edge, Dropped

    A continuous, downward edge deflection.

  • Edge, Liquated

    Surface condition remaining after portions of a side of an as-cast rolling ingot deforms enough during hot rolling to become top and/or bottom surface(s) of the rolled product at an edge.

  • Edge, Rippled

    See "Buckle, Edge."

  • Edge, Wavy

    See "Buckle, Edge."

  • Electrical Conductivity

    The capacity of a material to conduct electric current. For aluminum, this capacity is expressed as a percentage of the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS), which has a resistivity of 1/58 ohm-mm2/meter at 68 degrees F and an arbitrarily designated conductivity of unity.

  • Electrical Resistivity

    The electrical resistance of a body of unit length and unit cross-sectional area or unit weight. The value of 1/58 ohm-mm2/meter at 68 degrees F is the resistivity equivalent to the International Annealed Copper Standard for 100 percent conductivity. This means that a wire o 100 percent conductivity, 1 meter in length and 1 square millimeter in cross-sectional area would have a resistance of 0.017241 ohms at 68 degress F.

  • Elongation

    The percentage increase in distance between two gauge marks that results from stressing the specimen in tension to fracture. The original gauge length is usually 2 inches for flat specimens and round specimens whose diameter is 1/2 inch, or four times the diameter for specimens where that dimension is under 1/2 inch. Elogation values depend to some extent upon size and form of the test specimen. For example, th3 vvalue obtained from sheet specimens will be lower for thin sheet than for thicker sheet.

  • Embossing

    Raising a design in relief against a surface.

  • Endurance Limit

    The limiting stress below which a material will withstand a specified large number of cycles of stress.

  • Equivalent Round

    The diameter of a circle having a circumference equal to the outside perimeter of other than round tube.

  • Extrusion

    A product formed by pushing material through a die.

  • Extrusion Billet

    The starting stock for the extrusion operation. Extrusion billet is a solid or hollow form, commonly cylindrical and is the length charged into the extrusion press cylinder. It is usually a cast product but may be a wrought product or powder compact.

  • Extrusion Butt End Defect

    A longitudinal discontinuity in the extreme rear portion of an extruded product, which is normally discarded.

  • Extrusion Ingot

    A cast form that is solid or hollow, usually cylindrical, suitable for extruding. See also "Fabricating Ingot."

  • Extrusion Log

    The starting stock for extrusion billet. Extrusion log is usually produced in lengths from which shorter extrusion billets are cut.

  • Extrusion Seam

    A region in extruded hollow profiles observed after creating two streams of metal and rejoining them around the mandrel of a porthole or bridge die.

  • Eyehole

    see "Holiday."

  • Fabricating Ingot

    A cast form suitable for subsequent working by such methods as rolling, forging, extruding, etc. ("Rolling Ingot." "Forging Ingot " "Extrusion Ingot")

  • Fatigue

    The tendency for a metal to break under conditions of repeated cyclic stressing considerably below the ultimate tensile strength.

  • Feed In

    See "Back End Condition."

  • Feed Line

    See "Streak, Grinding."

  • Fillet

    A concave junction between two surfaces.

  • Fin

    A thin projection on a forging resulting from trimming or from the metal under pressure being forced into hairline cracks in the die or around die inserts.

  • Fin Stock

    coiled sheet or foil in specific alloys, tempers, and thickness ranges suitable for manufacture of fins for heat-exchanger applications.

  • Finish

    The characteristics of the surface of a product.

  • Fish Mouthing

    See "Lamination."

  • Flag

    A marker inserted adjacent to the edge at a splice or lap in a roll or foil.

  • Flaking

    A condition in coated sheet where portions of the coating become loosened due to inadequate adhesion.

  • Flange

    See "Rib."

  • Flash

    A thin protrusion at the parting line of a forging which forms when metal, in excess of that required to fill the impressions, is forced between the die interfaces.

  • Flash Line

    A line left on a forging where flash has been removed.

  • Flatness

    (1) For rolled products, a distortion of the surface of sheet such as a bulge or a wave, usually transverse to the direction of rolling. Often described by location across width, i.e., edge buckle, quarter buckle, center buckle, etc. (2) For extrusions, f

  • Flow Lines

    (l) Lines on the surface of painted sheet, brought about by incomplete leveling of the paint. (2) The line pattern revealed by etching, which shows the direction of plastic flow on the surface or within a wrought structure.

  • Flow Through

    A forging defect caused when metal flows past the base of a rib resulting in rupture of the grain structure.

  • FOB

    Free on Board.

  • Foil

    A rolled product rectangular in cross section of thickness less than 0.006 inch. In Europe, foil is equal to and less than 0.20 mm.

  • Foil Stock

    See "Reroll Stock."

  • Foil, Annealed

    Foil completely softened by thermal treatment.

  • Foil, Bright Two Sides

    Foil having a uniform bright specular finish on both sides.

  • Foil, Chemically Cleaned

    Foil chemically washed to remove lubricant and foreign material.

  • Foil, Embossed

    Foil on which a pattern has been impressed by means of an engraved roll or plate.

  • Foil, Etched

    Foil roughened chemically or electrochemically to provide an increased surface area.

  • Foil, Hard

    Foil fully work-hardened by rolling.

  • Foil, Intermediate Temper

    Foil intermediate in temper between Annealed Foil and Hard Foil.

  • Foil, Matte One Side (MIS)

    Foil with a diffuse reflecting finish on one side and a bright specular finish on the other.

  • Foil, Mechanically Grained

    Foil mechanically roughened for such applications as lithography

  • Foil, Mill Finish (MF}

    Foil having a non-uniform finish which may vary from coil to coil and within a coil.

  • Foil, Scratch Brushed

    Foil abraded, usually with wire brushes, to produce a roughened surface.

  • Fold

    A forging discontinuity caused by metal folding back on its own surface during flow in the die cavity

  • Forgeability

    The term used to describe the relative workability of forging material.

  • Forging

    A metal part worked to a predetermined shape by one or more processes such as hammering, upsetting, pressing, rolling, etc.

  • Forging Billet

    The term "Forging Stock" is preferred.

  • Forging Ingot

    A cast form intended and suitable for subsequent working by the forging process.

  • Forging Plane

    A reference plane or planes normal to the direction of applied force from which all draft angles are measured.

  • Forging Stock

    A wrought or cast rod, bar or other section suitable for forging.

  • Forging, Blocker-Type

    A forging made in a single set of impressions to the general contour of a finished part.

  • Forging, Cold-Coined

    A forging that has been restruck cold in order to obtain closer dimensions, to sharpen corners or outlines and in non-heat-treatable alloys, to increase hardness.

  • Forging, Die

    A forging formed to the required shape and size by working in impression dies.

  • Forging, Draftless

    A forging with zero draft on vertical walls.

  • Forging, Flashless

    A closed die forging made in dies constructed and operated to eliminate, in predetermined areas, the formation of flash.

  • Forging, Hammer

    A forging produced by repeated blows in a forging hammer.

  • Forging, Hand

    A forging worked between flat or simply shaped dies by repeated strokes or blows and manipulation of the piece.

  • Forging, No-Draft

    see "Forging, Draftless."

  • Forging, Precision

    A forging produced to tolerances closer than standard.

  • Forging, Press

    A die forging produced by pressure applied in a forging press.

  • Forging, Rolled Ring

    A cylindricalproduct of relatively short height, circumferentially rolled from a hollow section.

  • Forging, Upset

    A forging having part or all of its cross section greater than that of the stock.

  • Formability

    The relative ease with which a metal can be shaped through plastic deformation.

  • Fracture Toughness

    A generic term for measure of resistance to extension of a crack. The term is sometimes restricted to results of a fracture mechanics test, which is directly applicable in fracture control.

  • Fretting

    see "Mark, Traffic."

  • Friction scratch

    See "Scratch, Friction."

  • Full Center

    see "Buckle, Center."

  • Gauge

    A term previously used in referring to the thickness of a wrought product. Thickness is preferred in dimension description.

  • Gauge, Rolled In

    A more localized gross rolled-in scratch. See also "Scratch, Rolled-in."

  • Glaze

    See "Pickup, Roll."

  • Gouge

    A gross scratch. See "Scratch."

  • Grain Flow

    The directional characteristics of the metal structure after working, revealed by etching a polished section.

  • Grain Size

    A measure of crystal size usually reported in terms of average diameter in millimeters, grains per square millimeter, or grains per cubic millimeter.

  • Grease Streak

    see "Streak, Grease."

  • Hair, Slitter

    Minute hair-like sliver along edge(s) due to shearing or slitting operation.

  • Handling Mark

    See "Mark, Handling."

  • Hardener

    An alloy containing at least some aluminum and one or more added elements for use in making alloying additions to molten aluminum. Also referred to as "Master Alloy."

  • Hardness

    Resistance to plastic deformation, usually by indentation. The term may also refer to stiffness or temper, or to resistance to scratching, abrasion or cutting. Brinell Hardness: Brinell hardness of aluminum alloys is obtained by measuring the permanent impression in the material made by a ball indenter 10 millimeters in diameter after loading with a 500 kilogram-force for 15 seconds and dividing the applied load by the area of the impression. Rockwell Hardness: An indentation test based on the depth of penetration of a specified penetrator into the specimen under certain arbitrarily fixed conditions.

  • Heat Streak

    see "Streak, Heat."

  • Heat Treat Lot

    See "Lot, Heat Treat."

  • Heat Treat Stain

    A discoloration due to non-uniform oxidation of the metal surface during solution heat treatment.

  • Heat Treating

    Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way as to obtain desired conditions or properties. Commonly used as a shop term to denote a thermal treatment to increase strength. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this definition -- see "Solution Heat Treating," "Aging."

  • Heat-Treatable Alloy

    An alloy which may be strengthened by a suitable thermal treatment.

  • Herringbone

    see "Streak, Herringbone."

  • Hole

    Void in rolled product. Typical cause is a non-metallic inclusion during rolling.

  • Holiday

    Region where film is absent due to non-wetting of the metal surface by the coating.

  • Homogenizing

    Is a process whereby ingots are raised to temperatures near the solidus temperature and held at that temperature for varying lengths of time. The purposes of this process are to (l) reduce microsegregation by promoting diffusion of solute atoms within the grains of aluminum and (2) improve workability.

  • Hook

    An abrupt deviation from straightness. Hook can be caused by non-uniform metal flow during breakthrough. See also "Bow."

  • Hot Line Pickup

    See "Pickup, Roll."

  • Hot Shortness

    A condition of the metal at excessively high working temperatures characterized by low mechanical strength and a tendency for the metal to crack rather than deform.

  • Hot SpOt

    Dark grey or black surface patches appearing after anodizing. These areas are usually associated with lower hardness and coarse magnesium silicide precipitate caused by non-uniform cooling after extrusion.

  • Hot Tear

    See "Tear, Speed."

  • Hot Working

    Plastic deformation of metal at such temperature and rate that strain hardening does not occur.

  • Impact

    A part formed in a confining die from a metal slug, usually cold, by rapid single stroke application of force through a punch, causing the metal to flow around the punch and/or through an opening in the punch or die.

  • Inclusion

    Foreign material in the metal or impressed into the surface.

  • Inclusion, Stringer

    An impurity, metallic or non-metallic, which is trapped in the ingot and elongated subsequently in the direction of working. It may be revealed during working or finishing as a narrow streak parallel to the direction of working.

  • Incomplete Seam

    See "Weld, Incomplete."

  • Ingot

    A cast form suitable for remelting or fabricating. See "Remelt Ingot," "Fabricating Ingot," "Extrusion Ingot," "Forging Ingot," "Rolling Ingot."

  • Inspection Lot

    See "Lot, Inspection."

  • Interleaving

    The insertion of paper or application of suitable strippable coatings between layers of metal to protect from damage.

  • Kink

    (1) For rolled products, an abrupt bend or deviation from flat which is caused by localized bending during handling. (2) For extrusions, an abrupt deviation from straightness. A kink can be caused by handling.

  • Knife Mark

    See "Mark, Knife."

  • Knock-Out Mark

    See "Mark, Knock-Out."

  • Lacquer

    Occasionally used to describe oil stain. See "Stain, Oil."

  • Lamination

    An internal crack or separation aligned parallel to the direction of major metal flow and, in the case of plate, sheet or foil, parallel to the rolled surfaces. In extrusions, it can be caused by contaminants that feed into the metal flow before it reache

  • Lap

    See "Fold."

  • Lateral Bow

    See "Bow, Lateral."

  • Layout Sample

    A prototype forging or a "cast" used to determine conformance to designed dimensions.

  • Leveling

    The mechanical flattening of plate, sheet or foil.

  • Leveling, Roller

    Leveling carried out by bending.

  • Leveling, Stretcher

    Leveling carried out by uniaxial tension.

  • Leveling, Tension

    Leveling continuously carried out by uniaxial stretching usually with the assistance of bending.

  • Leveling, Thermal

    Leveling carried out at an elevated temperature under an applied load normal to the surface to be flattened.

  • Leveller Chatter

    see "Mark, Chatter (Roll or Leveller)."

  • Leveller Mark

    See "Dent, Repeating."

  • Leveller Streak

    See"Streak, Leveller."

  • Line, Flow

    The line pattern which shows the direction of flow on the surface.

  • Line, Looper

    Closely spaced symmetrical lines on the surface of metal which has undergone non-uniform deformation, usually in a drawing operation.

  • Line, LuderS

    Elongated surface markings or depressions appearing in patterns caused by localized plastic deformation that results from non-uniform yielding.

  • Line, Weld

    See "Seam, Extrusion."

  • Liner

    The slab ofcoating metal that is placed on the core alloy and is subsequently rolled down to clad sheet as composite.

  • Liquated Edge

    see "Edge, Liquated."

  • Liquation

    The bleeding of the low-melting constituents through the solidified ingot surface.

  • Lock

    A condition in which the parting line of a forging is not all in one plane.

  • Log

    See "Extrusion Log."

  • Long Transverse Direction

    For plate, sheet and forgings, the direction perpendicular to the longitudinal direction which is also at right angles to the thickness of the product. See also "Longitudinal Direction."

  • Longitudinal Bow

    See "Bow, Longitudinal."

  • Longitudinal Direction

    The direction of major metal flow in a working operation.

  • Looper Line

    See"Line, Looper."

  • Loose Wrap

    See "Wrap, Loose."

  • Lot, Heat Treat

    Material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size traceable to one heat-treat furnace load (or extrusion charge or billet in the case of press heat-treated extrusions) or, if heat treated in a continuous furnace, charged consecutively during

  • Lot, Inspection

    (1) For non-heat treated tempers, an identifiable quantity of material of the same mill form, alloy, temper, section and size submitted for inspection at one time. (2) For heat treated tempers, an identifiable quantity of material of the same mill form, a

  • Lube, High

    Lubricant limit exceeds the maximum agreed upon limit measured in weight per unit area.

  • Lube, Low

    Failure of the lubricant to meet the agreed upon minimum limit measured in weight per unit area.

  • Luders Line

    See "Line, Luders."

  • Mark

    Damage in the surface of the product whose name is often described by source.

  • Mark, Arbor

    Surface damage in the vicinity ofa coil ill caused by contact with a roughened, damaged or non-circular arbor.

  • Mark, Bearing

    A depression in the extruded surface caused by a change in bearing length in the extrusion die.

  • Mark, Bite

    A line which is generally perpendicular to the rolling direction.

  • Mark, Bristle

    Raised surface about one inch long, crimped wire shaped and oriented in any direction.

  • Mark, Carbon

    Gray or black surface marking caused by contact with carbon runout blocks.

  • Mark, Chatter (Roll or Leveller)

    Numerous intermittent lines or grooves that are usually full width and perpendicular to the rolling or extrusion direction.

  • Mark, Drag

    see "Rub, Tool."

  • Mark, Edge Follower

    Faint intermittent marks at the edge of a cold rolled product which are usually perpendicular to the rolling direction. This mark is caused by action of devices designed to rewind coils without weave.

  • Mark, Handling

    (l) For rolled products, an area of broken surface that is introduced after processing. The mark usually has no relationship to the rolling direction. (2) For extrusions, damage that can be imparted to the surface during handling operations.

  • Mark, Heat Treat Contact

    Brownish, iridescent, irregularly shaped stain with a slight abrasion located somewhere within the boundary of the stain. It is a result of metal-to-metal contact during the quenching of solution heat-treated flat sheet or plate.

  • Mark, Inclusion

    Appearance of surface where actual inclusion or the void it left is observed. See also "Inclusion, Stringer."

  • Mark, Knife

    A continuous scratch (which may also be creased) near a slit edge, caused by sheet contacting the slitter knife.

  • Mark, Knock-Out

    A small solid protrusion or circular fin on a forging or a casting, resulting from the depression of a knock-out pin under pressure or inflow of metal between the knock-out pin and the die or mold.

  • Mark, Leveller Chatter

    See "Mark, Chatter (Roll or Leveller)."

  • Mark, Metal-on-RoII

    See "Dent, Repeating."

  • Mark, Mike

    Narrow continuous line near the rolled edge caused by a contacting micrometer.

  • Mark, Pinch

    See "Crease."

  • Mark, Roil

    (l) For rolled products, a small repeating raised or depressed area caused by the opposite condition on a roll. The repeat distance is a function of the offending roll diameter. (2) For extrusions, a longitudinal groove or indentation caused by pressure f

  • Mark, Roll Bruise

    A greatly enlarged roll mark whose height or depth is very shallow. See also "Mark, Roll."

  • Mark, Roll Skid

    A full width line perpendicular to the rolling direction and repeating as a function of a work roll diameter.

  • Mark, Rub

    A large number of very fine scratches or abrasions. A rub mark can occur by metal-to-metal contact, movement in handling and movement in transit.

  • Mark, Snap

    A band-like pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded section and perpendicular to its length. A snap mark can occur whenever there is an abrupt change in the extrusion process. See also "Mark, Stop."

  • Mark, Stop

    A band-like pattern around the full perimeter of an extruded section and perpendicular to its length. A stop mark occurs whenever the extrusion process is suspended. See also "Mark, Snap."

  • Mark, Stretcher Jaw

    A cross hatched appearance left by jaws at the end(s) of metal that has been stretched. These marks are seen if insufficient metal has been removed after the stretching operation.

  • Mark, Tab

    see "Buckle, Arbor."

  • Mark, Tail

    see "Mark, Roll Bruise."

  • Mark, Take Up

    see "Scratch, Tension."

  • Mark, Traffic

    Abrasion which results from relative movement between contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. A dark color from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. A mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contact

  • Mark, Whip

    A surface abrasion which is generally diagonal to the rolling direction. It is caused by a fluttering action of the metal as it enters the rolling mill.

  • Master Alloy

    See "Hardener."

  • Mean Diameter

    The average of two measurements of the diameter at right angles to each other.

  • Mechanical Properties

    Those properties of a material that are associated with elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied, or that involve the relationship between stress and strain; for example, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, endurance limit. These propert

  • Mike Mark

    Narrow continuous line near the rolled edge caused by a contacting micrometer.

  • Minimum Residual Stress (MRS)

    The term applied to products, usually flat rolled, which have been processed to minimize internal stress of the kind that causes distortion when material is disproportionately removed from one of the two surfaces through mechanical or chemical means.

  • Mismatch

    Error in register between two halves of a forging by opposing die halves not being in perfect alignment.

  • Modulus of Elasticity

    The ratio of stress to corresponding strain throughout the range where they are proportional. As there are three kinds of stresses. so there are three kinds of moduli of elasticity for any material--modulus in tension, in compression, and in shear.

  • Mottling, Pressure

    Non-uniform surface appearance resulting from uneven pressure distribution between adjacent layers of the product.

  • Mullen Test

    Measurement of bursting strength of foil in pounds per square inch. Testing machine applies increasing pressure to one square inch of the sample until it ruptures.

  • Natural Aging

    See "Aging."

  • Nick

    Rolled products, see "Scratch." Extrusions, see "Mark, Handling."

  • Non-Heat-Treatable Alloy

    An alloy which can be strengthened only by cold work.

  • Nonfill

    Failure of metal to fill a forging die impression.

  • Notch, Double Shear

    An abrupt deviation from straight on a sheared edge. This offset may occur if the flat sheet or plate product is longer than the blade for the final shearing operation.

  • Off Gauge

    Deviation of thickness or diameter of a solid product, or wall thickness of a tubular product, from the standard or specified dimensional tolerances.

  • Offset

    Yield strength by the "offset method" is computed from a load-strain curve obtained by means of an extensometer. A straight line is drawn parallel to the initial straight line portion of the load-strain curve and at a distance to the right corresponding

  • Oil Stain

    See "Stain, Oil."

  • Orange Peel

    Surface roughening on formed products which occurs when large grains in the metal are present.

  • Oscillation

    uneven wrap in coiling and lateral travel during winding. Improper alignment of rolls over which the metal passes before rewinding and insufficient rewind tension are typical causes. See also "Telescoping."

  • Out-of-Register

    An embossed pattern distortion due to misalignment of the male and female embossing rolls.

  • Ovality

    Deviation from a circular periphery, usually expressed as the total difference found at any one cross section between the individual maximum and minimum diameters, which usually occur at or about 90 degrees to each other. Since ovality is the difference b

  • Ovalness

    See "Ovality"

  • Oxide Discoloration

    See "Stain, Heat Treat."

  • Pack Rolling

    The simultaneous rolling of two or more thicknesses of foil.

  • Parent Coil

    A coil that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. The parent coil may subsequently be cut into two or more smaller coils or into individual sheets or plates to provide the required width and length.

  • Parent Plate

    A plate that has been processed to final temper as a single unit. The parent plate may subsequently be cut into two or more smaller plates to provide the required width and length.

  • Partial Annealing

    see "Annealing, Partial.

  • Parting Line

    A condition unique to stepped extrusions where more than one cross section exists in the same extruded shape. A stepped shape uses a split die for the minor or small cross section and after its removal, another die behind it for the major configuration. S

  • Patterned Sheet

    See "Embossing."

  • Physical Properties

    The properties, other than mechanical properties, that pertain to the physics of a material; for example, density, electrical conductivity, heat conductivity, thermal expansion.

  • Pick-Off

    The transfer of portions of the coating from one surface of the sheet to an adjacent surface due to poor adhesion of the coating.

  • PickUp

    Small particles of oxide adhering to the surface of a product at irregular intervals.

  • Pickup, Repeating

    see "Dent, Repeating."

  • Pickup, Roll

    small particles of aluminum and aluminum oxide generated in the roll bite which subsequently transfer to the rolled product. It may be distributed uniformly and/ or in streaks. See also "Streak, Coating."

  • PIE

    Price in effect at time of purchase.

  • Pinch Mark

    See "Crease."

  • Pinhole

    (1) Minute hole in foil. (2) A small-sized void in the coating of a sheet or foil product. A typical cause is solvent popping.

  • Pipe

    Tube in standardized combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness, commonly designated by "Nominal Pipe Sizes" and "ANSI Schedule Numbers."

  • Pipe, Drawn

    Pipe brought to the final dimensions by drawing through a die.

  • Pipe, Extruded

    Pipe formed by hot extruding.

  • Pipe, Seamless

    Extruded or drawn pipe which does not contain any line junctures resulting from the method of manufacture.

  • Pipe, Structural

    Pipe commonly used for structural purposes.

  • Piping

    see "Back End Condition."

  • Pit

    A depression in the rolled surface which is usually not visible from opposite side.

  • Pitting

    See "Corrosion."

  • Plate

    :A rolled product that is rectangular in cross section and with thickness not less than 0.250 inch with sheared or sawed edges.

  • Plate Circle

    circle cut from plate.

  • Plate, Alclad

    Composite plate comprised of an aluminum alloy core having on both surfaces (if on one side only, Alclad One Side Plate) a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core agai

  • Pop, Solvent

    Blister and/or void in the coating resulting from trapped solvents released during curing process.

  • Precipitation Hardening

    see "Aging."

  • Precipitation Heat Treating

    see"Aging."

  • Preheating

    A high temperature soaking treatment to provide a desired metallurgical structure. Homogenizing is a form of preheating.

  • Pressure Mottling

    See "Mottling, Pressure."

  • Profile

    A wrought product that is long in relation to its cross-sectional dimensions which is of a form other than that of sheet, plate, rod, bar, tube, wire or foil.

  • Profile, Class 1 Hollow Extruded

    A hollow extruded profile, the void of which is round and 1 inch or more in diameter and whose weight is equally distributed on opposite sides of two or more equally spaced axes.

  • Profile, Class 2 Hollow Extruded

    Any hollow extruded profile other than Class 1, which does not exceed a 5-inch diameter circumscribing circle and has a single void of not less than O.375-inch diameter or 0.11O-square inch area.

  • Profile, Class 3 Hollow Extruded

    Any hollow extruded profile other than Class 1 or Class 2.

  • Profile, Cold-Finished

    A profile brought to final dimensions by cold-working to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.

  • Profile, Cold-Finished Extruded

    A profile produced by cold-finishing an extruded profile.

  • Profile, Cold-Finished Rolled

    A profile produced by cold-finishing a rolled profile.

  • Profile, Drawn

    A profile brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die.

  • Profile, Extruded

    A profile produced by hot extruding.

  • Profile, Flute Hollow

    A hollow profile having plain inside surfaces and whose outside surfaces comprise regular, longitudinal, concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations.

  • Profile, Helical Extruded

    An extruded profile twisted along its length.

  • Profile, Hollow

    A profile any part of whose cross section completely encloses a void.

  • Profile, Lip Hollow

    A hollow profile of generally circular cross section and nominally uniform wall thickness with one hollow or solid protuberance or lip parallel to the longitudinal axis; used principally for heat-exchange purposes.

  • Profile, Pinion Hollow

    A hollow profile with regularly spaced, longitudinal serrations outside and round inside, used primarily for making small gears.

  • Profile, Rolled

    A profile produced by hot rolling.

  • Profile, Semihollow

    A profile any part of whose cross section is a partially enclosed void the area of which is substantially greater than the square of the width of the gap. The ratio of the area of the void to the square of the gap is dependent on the class of semihollow p

  • Profile, Solid

    A profile other than hollow or semihollow.

  • Profile, Stepped Extruded

    An extruded profile whose cross section changes abruptly in area at intervals along its length.

  • Profile, Streamline Hollow

    A hollow profile with a cross section of tear-drop shape.

  • Profile, Structural

    A profile in certain standard alloys, tempers, sizes, and sections, such as angles, channels, H-sections, I-beams, tees, and zees commonly used for structural purposes. For channels and I-beams, there are two standards, namely Aluminum Association Standar

  • Profile, Tapered Extruded

    An extruded profile whose cross section changes continuously in area along its length or a specified portion thereof.

  • Quarter Buckle

    See "Buckle, Quarter."

  • Quenching

    Controlled rapid cooling of a metal from an elevated temperature by contact with a liquid, a gas, or a solid.

  • RCS

    Abbreviation for Rigid Container Sheet.

  • Razor Streak

    see "Inclusion, Stringer."

  • Rear End Condition

    See "Back End Condition."

  • Redraw Rod

    This term is not recommended. The term "Drawing Stock" is preferred.

  • Refined Aluminum

    Aluminum of very high purity (99.950 percent or higher) obtained by special metallurgical treatments.

  • Reflector Sheet

    Sheet suitable for the manufacture of reflectors.

  • Reheating

    Heating metal again to hot-working temperature. In general no structural changes are intended.

  • Reoil

    oil put on the sheet after cleaning and before coiling for shipment to prevent water stain.

  • Reroll Stock

    A semi-finished rolled product of rectangular cross section in coiled form suitable for further rolling. Examples: "Foil Stock" and "Sheet Stock."

  • Rib

    An elongated projection on a shape, forging or casting to provide stiffening.

  • Rivet

    See "Wire, Cold Heading."

  • Rod

    A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its circular cross section, which is not less than 0.375 inch diameter.

  • Rod, Alclad

    Rod having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corrosion.

  • Rod, Cold-Finished

    Rod brought to final dimensions by cold working to obtain improved surface finish and dimensional tolerances.

  • Rod, Cold-Finished Extruded

    Rod produced by cold working extruded rod.

  • Rod, Cold-Finished Rolled

    Rod produced by cold working rolled rod.

  • Rod, Cold-Heading

    Rod of a quality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-headed products such as rivets and bolts.

  • Rod, Extruded

    Rod produced by hot extruding.

  • Rod, Rivet

    See "Rod, Cold Heading."

  • Rod, Rolled

    Rod produced by hot rolling.

  • Roll Chatter

    See "Mark, Chatter (Roll or Leveller)".

  • Roll Coating

    see "Streak, Coating."

  • Roll Grind

    The uniform ground finish on the work rolls which is imparted to the sheet or plate during rolling.

  • Roll Mark

    See "Mark, Roll."

  • Roll Pickup

    See "Pickup, Roll."

  • Rolled Ring

    See "Forging, Rolled Ring."

  • Rolled-in Metal

    An extraneous chip or particle of metal rolled into the surface of the product.

  • Rolled-ln Scratch

    See"Scratch, Rolled-In."

  • Rolled-over Edge

    See "Edge, Liquated."

  • Rolling Ingot

    A cast form suitable for rolling. See "Fabricating Ingot."

  • Rolling Slab

    A rectangular semifinished product, produced by hot rolling fabricating ingot and suitable for further rolling.

  • Roofing Sheet

    Coiled or flat sheet in specific tempers, widths, and thicknesses suitable for the manufacture of corrugated or v-crimp roofing.

  • Roping

    A rope-like appearance in the rolling direction after the metal has undergone severe deformation.

  • Roundness

    This term is not recommended. The term "Ovality" is preferred.

  • Rub Mark

    See "Mark, Rub."

  • Rub, Tool

    A surface area showing a scratch or abrasion resulting from contact of the hot extrusion with the press equipment or tooling or, in the case of multi-hole dies, with others sections as they exit the press.

  • Sample

    A part, portion, or piece taken for purposes of inspection or test as representative of the whole.

  • Saw-Plate Bar

    see "Bar, Saw-Plate."

  • Scalping

    Mechanical removal of the surface layer from a fabricating ingot or semi-finished wrought product so that surface imperfections will not be worked into the finished product.

  • Scratch

    (1) For rolled products, a sharp indentation in the surface usually caused by a machine or during handling. (2) For extrusions, a synonym for handling mark. See "Mark, Handling."

  • Scratch, Drawn-ln

    A scratch occurring during the fabricating process and subsequently drawn over, making it relatively smooth to the touch.

  • Scratch, Friction

    A scratch caused by relative motion between two contacting surfaces.

  • Scratch, Handling

    A more severe form ofrub mark. See "Mark, Rub."

  • Scratch, Machine

    An indentation which is straight, is in the rolling direction and is caused by contact with a sharp projection on equipment.

  • Scratch, Oscillation

    Minor indentations at an angle to the rolling direction that result from coil oscillation during unwinding or rewinding.

  • Scratch, Oven

    A scratch which is caused by moving contact of coating against a non-moving object in an oven.

  • Scratch, Rolled-ln

    A scratch which is subsequently rolled. It will then appear as a greyish white ladder (distinct transverse lines within the longitudinal indentation).

  • Scratch, Slippage

    See "Scratch, Tension."

  • Scratch, Tension

    A short longitudinal indentation parallel to the rolling direction.

  • Seam Defect

    An unbonded fold or lap on the surface.of the metal, which appears as a crack, usually the result of a defect in working that has not bonded shut.

  • Seam, Extrusion

    The junction line of metal that has passed through a hollow die, separated and rejoined at the exit point. Seams are present in all extruded hollows produced from the direct extrusion process and in many cases are not visible. See "Weld, Incomplete."

  • Seamless

    A hollow product which does not contain any line junctures resulting from method of manufacture.

  • Section Number

    The number assigned to an extruded or drawn profile (shape) for identification and cataloging purposes, usually the same number assigned for the same purpose to the die from which the profile (shape) is made.

  • Serpentine Weave

    See "Snaking."

  • Shape

    This term is no longer recommended. The term "Profile" is preferred. See "Profile."

  • Shear Strength

    The maximum stress that a material is capable of sustaining in shear. In practice, shear strength is considered to be the maximum average stress computed by dividing the ultimate load in the plane of shear by the original area subject to shear. Shear str

  • Sheet

    A rolled product that is rectangular in cross section with thickness less than 0.250 inch but not less than 0.006 inch and with slit, sheared or sawed edges.

  • Sheet Stock

    See "Reroll Stock."

  • Sheet, Alclad

    Composite sheet comprised of an aluminum alloy core having on both surfaces (if one side only, Alclad One Side Sheet) a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core against

  • Sheet, Anodizing

    Sheet with metallurgical characteristics and surface quality suitable for the development of protective and decorative films by anodic oxidation processes.

  • Sheet, Clad

    Composite sheet having on both surfaces (if on one side only, Clad One Side Sheet) a metallurgically bonded metal coating, the composition of which may or may not be the same as that of the core.

  • Sheet, Coiled

    Sheet in coils with slit edges.

  • Sheet, Coiled Circles

    Circles cut from coiled sheet.

  • Sheet, Coiled Cut to Length

    Sheet cut to specified length from coils and which has a lesser degree of flatness than flat sheet.

  • Sheet, Flat

    Sheet with sheared, slit or sawed edges, which has been flattened or leveled.

  • Sheet, Flat Circles

    Circles cut from flat sheet.

  • Sheet, Mill Finish (MF)

    Sheet having a non-uniform finish that may vary from sheet to sheet and within a sheet, and may not be entirely free from stains or oil.

  • Sheet, One Side Bright Mill Finish (1SBMF)

    sheet having a moderate degree of brightness on one side and a mill finish on the other.

  • Sheet, Painted

    sheet, one or both sides of which has a factory-applied paint coating of controlled thickness.

  • Sheet, Standard One Side Bright Finish (S1SBF)

    Sheet having a uniform bright finish on one side and a mill finish on the other.

  • Sheet, Standard Two Sides Bright Finish (S2SBF)

    Sheet having a uniform bright finish on both sides.

  • Short Transverse Direction

    For plate, sheet and forgings, the direction through the thickness perpendicular to both longitudinal and long transverse directions.

  • Shrinkage

    contraction that occurs when metal cools from the hot-working temperature.

  • Side Crack

    See"Edge, Broken (Cracked)."

  • Side Set

    A difference in thickness between the two edges of plate, sheet or foil. .

  • Skip

    An area of uncoated sheet which is frequently caused by equipment malfunction.

  • Slippage Scratch

    see "Scratch, Tension."

  • Slitter Hair

    See "Hair, Slitter."

  • Sliver

    Thin fragment of aluminum which is part of the material but only partially attached. Surface damage or residualliquation which is subsequently rolled are typical causes.

  • Slug

    A metal blank for forging or impacting.

  • Smudge

    A dark film of debris, sometimes covering large areas, deposited on the sheet during rolling.

  • Smut

    See "Smudge."

  • Snaking

    A series of reversing lateral bows in coil products. This condition is caused by a weaving action during an unwinding or rewinding operation.

  • Solution Heat Treating

    Heating an alloy at a suitable temperature for sufficient time to allow soluble constituents to enter into solid solution where they are retained in a supersaturated state after quenching.

  • Specimen

    That portion of a sample taken for evaluation of some specific characteristic or property.

  • Speed Crack

    See "Tear, Speed."

  • Speed Tear

    see "Tear, Speed."

  • Splice

    The end joint uniting two webs.

  • Spot, Lube

    A non-uniform extraneous deposit oflube on the coated sheet.

  • Squareness

    Characteristic of having adjacent sides or planes meeting at 90 degrees.

  • Stabilizing

    A low temperature thermal treatment designed to prevent age-softening in certain strain hardened alloys containing magnesium.

  • Stain, Heat Treat

    A discoloration due to non-uniform oxidation of the metal surface during heat treatment.

  • Stain, Oil

    Surface discoloration which may vary from dark brown to white and is produced during thermal treatment by incomplete evaporation and/or oxidation of lubricants on the surface.

  • Stain, Saw Lubricant

    A yellow to brown area of surface discoloration at the ends of the extruded length. It is the residue of certain types of saw lubricants if they are not removed from the metal prior to the thermal treatment.

  • Stain, Water

    See "Corrosion, Water Stain."

  • Starvation

    Non-uniform coating application results in absence of coating in certain areas.

  • Sticking

    Adherence offoil surfaces sufficient to interfere with the normal ease of unwinding.

  • Straightness

    The absence of divergence from a right (straight) line in the direction of measurement.

  • Strain

    A measure of the change in size or shape of a body under stress, referred to its original size or shape. Tensile or compressive strain is the change, due to force, per unity of length in an original linear dimension in the direction of the force. It is us

  • Strain Hardening

    Modification of a metal structure by cold working resulting in an increase in strength and hardness with loss of ductility.

  • Streak (Stripe)

    A superficial band or elongated mark which produces a non-uniform surface appearance. A streak is often described by source.

  • Streak, Bearing

    A longitudinal discoloration that can occur where there are large changes in wall thickness as a result of uneven cooling. These streaks usually appear lighter than the surrounding metal.

  • Streak, Bright

    A bright superficial band or elongated mark which produces a non-uniform surface appearance.

  • Streak, Buff

    A dull continuous streak caused by smudge buildup on a buff used at shearing or other operations.

  • Streak, Burnish

    A bright region on the sheet caused by excessive roll surface wear.

  • Streak, Coating

    A banded condition caused by non-uniform adherence of roll coating to a work roll. It can be created during hot and/or cold rolling. If generated in the hot rolling process, it is also called "Hot Mill Pickup."

  • Streak, Cold

    See "Streak, Heat."

  • Streak, Diffusion

    Surface discoloration which may vary from gray to brown and found only on Alclad products.

  • Streak, Dirt

    Surface discoloration which may vary from gray to black, is parallel to the direction of rolling, and contains rolled in foreign debris. It is usually extraneous material from an overhead location that drops onto the rolling surface and is shallow enough

  • Streak, Grease

    A narrow discontinuous streak caused by rolling over an area containing grossly excessive lubricant drippage.

  • Streak, Grinding

    A streak with a helical pattern appearance transferred to a rolled product from a work roll.

  • Streak, Heat

    Milky colored band(s) parallel to the rolling direction which vary in both width and exact location along the length.

  • Streak, Herringbone

    Elongated alternately bright and dull chevron markings.

  • Streak, Leveller

    A streak on the sheet surface in the rolling direction caused by transfer from the leveler rolls.

  • Streak, Mill Buff

    See "Streak, Roll."

  • Streak, Pickup

    See "Streak, Coating."

  • Streak, Roll

    A non-uniform surface appearance parallel to the rolling direction.

  • Streak, Structural

    A non-uniform appearance on an etched or anodized surface caused by heterogeneities (variabilities) remaining in the metal from the casting, thermal processes or hot working stages of fabrication.

  • Stress

    Force per unit of area. Stress is normally calculated on the basis of the original cross-sectional dimensions. The three kinds of stresses are tensile, compressive, and shear.

  • Stress Corrosion Cracking

    see "Corrosion, Stress Cracking."

  • Stress Relieving

    The reduction of the effects of internal residual stresses by thermal or mechanical means.

  • Stretcher Strain

    See "Line, Luders."

  • Striation

    Longitudinal non-uniform coating thickness caused by uneven application of the liquid coating.

  • Strip

    This term is not recommended. The term "Sheet" is preferred.

  • Structural Streak

    see "Streak, Structural."

  • Suck-ln

    A defect caused when one face of a forging is sucked in to fill a projection on the opposite side.

  • Surface Tear

    Minute surface cracks on rolled products which can be caused by insufficient ingot scalping.

  • Tail Mark

    see "Mark, Roll Bruise."

  • Tear, Speed

    A series of surface cracks perpendicular to the extruding direction. Speed tearing normally occurs in corner radii or extremities of a section and is caused by localized high temperature.

  • Telescoping

    Lateral stacking, primariy in one direction, of wraps in a coil so that the edges of the coil are conical rather than flat Improper alignment of rolls over which the metal passes before rewinding is a typical cause. See also "Oscillation."

  • Temper

    The condition produced by either mechanical or thermal treatment, or both, and characterized by a certain structure and mechanical properties.

  • Tensile Strength

    In tensile testing, the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. Also called "Ultimate Strength."

  • Tension Scratch

    See "Scratch, Tension."

  • Tolerance

    Allowable deviation from a nominal or specified dimension.

  • Tool

    A term usually referring to the dies, mandrels, etc., used in the production of extruded or drawn shapes or tube.

  • Tooling Pad

    See "Chucking Lug."

  • Tooling Plate

    A cast or rolled product of rectangular cross section of thickness 0.250 inch or greater, and with edges either as-cast, sheared or sawed, with internal stress levels controlled to achieve maximum stability for machining purposes in tool and jig applicati

  • Torn Surface

    A deep longitudinal rub mark resulting from abrasion by extrusion or drawing tools.

  • Traffic Mark

    Abrasion which results from relative movement between contacting metal surfaces during handling and transit. A dark color from the abrasively produced aluminum oxide is usually observed. A mirror image of a traffic mark is observed on the adjacent contact

  • Transverse Bow

    See "Bow, Transverse."

  • Transverse Direction

    A direction perpendicular to the direction of working.

  • Tread Plate

    sheet or plate having a raised figured pattern on one surface to provide improved traction.

  • Trim Inclusion

    Edge trimming accidentally wound into a roll of foil.

  • Tube

    A hollow wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is symmetrical and is round, a regular hexagon or octagon, elliptical, or square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners, and that has uniform wall thickness except as affe

  • Tube Bloom

    This term is not recommended. The term "Tube Stock" is preferred.

  • Tube Stock

    A semifinished tube suitable for the production of drawn tube.

  • Tube, Alclad

    composite tube composed of an aluminum alloy core having on either the inside or outside surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum alloy coating that is anodic to the core, thus electrolytically protecting the core against corrosion.

  • Tube, Arc-Welded

    Tube made from sheet or plate butt welded by either gas-tungsten or gas-metal arc-welding method, with or without the use of filler metal.

  • Tube, Brazed

    A tube produced by forming and seam-brazing sheet.

  • Tube, Butt-Welded

    A welded tube, the seam of which is formed by positioning one edge of the sheet against the other for welding.

  • Tube, Drawn

    A tube brought to final dimensions by cold drawing through a die. (Note: This product may be produced from either seamless or non-seamless extruded stock or from welded stock.)

  • Tube, Embossed

    A tube the outside surface of which has been roll-embossed with a design in relief regularly repeated in a longitudinal direction.

  • Tube, Extruded

    A tube formed by hot extruding. (Note: This product may be either seamless or non-seamless.)

  • Tube, Finned

    Tube which has integral fins or projections protruding from its outside surface.

  • Tube, Fluted

    A tube of nominally uniform wall thickness having regular, longitudinal, concave corrugations with sharp cusps between corrugations.

  • Tube, Heat-Exchanger

    A tube for use in apparatus in which fluid inside the tube will be heated or cooled by huid outside the tube. The term usually is not applied to coiled tube or to tubes for use in refrigerators or radiators.

  • Tube, Helical-Welded

    A welded tube produced by winding the sheet to form a closed helix and joining the edges of the seam by welding.

  • Tube, Lap-Welded

    A welded tube the seam of which is formed by longitudinally lapping the edges of the sheet for welding.

  • Tube, Lock-Seam

    A tube produced by forming and mechanically lock-seaming sheet.

  • Tube, Open-Seam

    A shape normally produced from sheet of nominally uniform wall thickness and approximately tubular form but having a longitudinal unjointed seam or gap of width not greater than 25 percent of the outside diameter or greatest over-all dimension. Also refer

  • Tube, Redraw

    This term is not recommended. The term "Tube Stock" is preferred.

  • Tube, Seamless

    A tube that does not contain any line junctures (metallurgicalwelds) resulting from the method of manufacture. (Note: This product may be produced by die and mandrel or by hot piercer processes.)

  • Tube, Sized

    A tube that, after extrusion, has been cold drawn a slight amount to minimize ovality.

  • Tube, Stepped Drawn

    A drawn tube whose cross section changes abruptly in area at intervals along its length.

  • Tube, Structural

    Tube commonly used for structural purposes.

  • Tube, Welded

    A tube produced by forming and seam-welding sheet longitudinally.

  • Tubing

    This term is not recommended. The term "tube" is preferred.

  • Tubing-Electrical Metallic

    A tube having certain standardized length and combinations of outside diameter and wall thickness thinner than that of "Rigid Conduit," commonly designated by nominal electrical trade sizes, for use with compression-type fittings as a protection for elect

  • Tubular Conductor

    A tubular product suitable for use as an electric conductor.

  • Twist

    (l) For rolled products, a winding departure from flatness. (2) For extrusions, a winding departure from straightness.

  • Two-Tone

    A sharp color demarcation in the appearance of the metal due to a difference in the work roll coating.

  • Ultimate Tensile Strength

    See "Tensile Strength."

  • Vent Mark

    A small protrusion on a forging resulting from the entrance of metal into a die vent hole.

  • Water Stain

    see "Corrosion, Water Stain."

  • Wavy Edge

    See "Buckle, Edge."

  • Weave

    See "Oscillation."

  • Web

    (l) A single thickness offoil as it leaves the rolling mill. (2) A connecting element between ribs, flanges, or bosses on shapes and forgings.

  • Weld Line

    See "Seam, Extrusion."

  • Weld, Incomplete

    The junction line of metal that has passed through a die forming a hollow profile (shape), separated and not completely rejoined. Flare testing is a method of evaluating weld integrity.

  • Welding

    Joining two or more pieces of aluminum by applying heat or pressure, or both, with or without filler metal to produce a localized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface. (In cold welding, it is a solid state welding process in whic

  • Welding Rod

    A rolled, extruded, or cast round filler metal for use in joining by welding.

  • Welding Wire

    Wire for use as filler metal in joining by welding.

  • Wettability Test

    The degree to which a metal surface may be wet to determine the absence of or the amount of residual rolling or added lubricants or deposits on the surface.

  • Whip Marks

    See "Mark, Whip."

  • Whisker

    See "Hair, Sliner."

  • Wire

    A solid wrought product that is long in relation to its cross section, which is square or rectangular with sharp or rounded corners or edges, or is round, hexagonal, or octagonal, and whose diameter or greatest perpendicular distance between parallel face

  • Wire, Alclad

    A composite wire product comprised of an aluminum-alloy wire having on its surface a metallurgically bonded aluminum or aluminum-alloy coating that is anodic to the alloy to which it is bonded, thus electrolytically protecting the core alloy against corro

  • Wire, Cold-Heading

    Wire of quality suitable for use in the manufacture of cold-headed products such as rivets and bolts.

  • Wire, Drawn

    Wire brought to final dimensions by drawing through a die.

  • Wire, Extruded

    Wire produced by hot extruding.

  • Wire, Flattened

    wire having two parallel flat surfaces and rounded edges produced by roll-flattening round wire.

  • Wire, Flattened and Slit

    Flattened wire that has been slit to obtain square edges.

  • Wire, Rivet

    see "Wire, Cold-Heading."

  • Work Hardening

    See"Strain Hardening."

  • Workability

    The relative ease with which various alloys may be formed by rolling, extruding, forging, etc.

  • Wrap, Loose

    A condition in a coil due to insufficient tension which creates a small void between adjacent wraps.

  • Wrinkle

    see "Crease."

  • Wrought Product

    A product that has been subjected to mechanical working by such processes as rolling, extruding, forging, etc.

  • Yield Strength

    The stress at which a material exhibits a specified permanent set The offset used for aluminum and its alloys is 0.2 percent of gauge length. For aluminum alloys the yield strengths in tension and compression are approximately equal.